- 1 Grape Pruning for Beginners
- 2 Pruning grapes in the fall for beginners in pictures
- 3 Cut the grapes in the winter, and the harvest will surprise you!
Grape Pruning for Beginners
pruning grapes - one of the most difficult events held in the country. Sometimes it is difficult to understand, how to properly trim the vines and when.
Trimming vine pruning is reduced to 90 percent of vines, leaving the required number of holes (kidney).
Let us consider in detail the secrets of proper pruning vines, starting with the first year of planting.
Pruning grapes can be produced both in spring and autumn. When pruning a bush in the autumn it is desirable to cover for the winter, protected from frost. If your local harsh winters, then spend the spring pruning or harboring the vine in winter. By the way, Uncut grapes better tolerate winter.
Features of the structure and names of parts of the vine
The base of the trunk, which is in the ground, called heel, roots grow from it.
shtamb - part of the stem to the first side shoots, as in all the trees. Grapes and part of the trunk is under the ground, the heel ends.
Head - thickening on the main stem, which depart from the side shoots.
Sleeves (shoulder) - a lateral shoots extending from the main stem. And the eyes of them, it is the same kidney.
There are terms that you must remember: fruit and twig arrow replacement.
fruit shooter - the length of the cut sleeve, which is left after cutting renal 8-12.
Twig replacement - short sleeve, after trimming is 2-4 buds.
fruit link - shoot a couple consisting of a knot of substitution and fruit arrow. All names we discussed, we turn to the secrets of pruning grapes.
There are a lot of options of formation of the vine. Let us dwell on the most simple and understandable - the shoots start to grow not vertically but horizontally.
Formation of vines in the first year
In the spring at the central escape left 2 the lowest buds, the rest is cut off. 2 of them grow their escape, and tie them obliquely in different directions.
Late autumn, when leaves fall off all, before this can not be done, or grape juice runs out, shortening the shoots. One subject short escape, leaving two kidneys second escape leave long, leaving four kidneys. In winter, the vine shoot with trellis and cover.
Forming grapes for the second year
In the spring, after the danger has passed severe frosts (early April), remove the cover and tie rod to the bottom wire trellis, tops in different directions.
Stems, buds grow back from, let vertically or slightly tilted toward the center of the bush.
In autumn, after leaf fall, long sleeve cut leaving 2 to escape. The sleeves are the same. Then trim the vertical stems: those that are closer to the center and down the main stems, cut leaving two buds. This is a knot of substitution.
Vertical stems located further cut leaving at 4 buds - it will be the fruit arrow. Remove vines and lodge in the winter.
Formation of the grapes in the third year
In the spring, after the pass by frost, remove the cover from the vine. Long fruit arrows to the lower tie wire trellis horizontally apices in opposite directions.
knots replacement allowed to grow vertically. During the summer, of all kidney grow stems. In early August, spend minting - trimming the stems of 10-20 cm This will increase the quality and quantity of berries..
August did not spend before minting, or weight on the vine shoots appear.
In the autumn, after leaf, crop otplodonosivshie extreme 4 vertical shoots with a piece of hose.
As a result, on each shoulder will remain one link with two vertical shoots. Their pruning also, in the second year. Escape the closest to the center of the cut leaving two buds, leaving long 4 buds.
All subsequent years, vine growth, carry out pruning similarly as in the third year.
Note: for more reliability and power reserve, the shoots can leave more buds, but no more than 10 each. This is done in case of frost damage.
For example, the optimal amount of 3 knots on the kidney substitution and 6-7 in fruit buds arrows. In the spring, when all the buds survive, excess can be trimmed.
Video - step by step Pruning grapes
Here are the key secrets for the crop of grapes in autumn, the observance of which will be the key to quality and a large crop of berries.
Pruning grapes in the fall for beginners in pictures
Beginning the tenants often do not know how to cut the grapes, what time of year it is best to do. The most common mistake beginners considered too gentle pruning, and yet, the novice gardener is difficult to determine the correct time of vaccination.
Grapes also is the southern plant, the climate of the middle band is unusual for him, and too harsh, so by trimming bushes depends very much how the plant will survive the winter, as the yield will be next season, will the berries delicious and large.
This article is about pruning grapes in the fall for beginners, in pictures and diagrams beginners can see how to vaccinate the vines of different ages.
What is the crop of grapes
Inoculation of grapes or as it is more commonly called, cropping, indeed, necessary. Many winegrowers allow a huge mistake by neglecting this stage of plant care, as a result suffers yield shrubs, vines suffer and freeze, and the berries themselves are small and tasteless.
The role of pruning grapes is difficult to overestimate, because it solves such problems as:
- increasing frost vines, which is especially important for heat-loving varieties and neukryvnyh;
- increase in yield due to the trimming of old shoots, as well as the vines that interfere bush develop properly;
- the optimization of the above-ground parts of the grape and its roots, shoots adjustment gelled;
- preventing melchaniya berries, grapes deterioration palatability;
- simplification of insulation plant in the winter, because the shelter shorter, well-formed vine is very simple;
- Sap acceleration process in the autumn shoots circumcision provides earlier crops.
Opinions regarding the timing of pruning vines are divided, but the majority of winegrowers argues that the best way to trim the shoots in the autumn. The fact that the spring crop often leads to "plachu9raquo; vine, which is why not all the buds bloom, reduced crop may dry cut escape. All this is happening because with the onset of warm days in the grape juice begins to move, the plant becomes weak and susceptible to wounds and infections.
Select the exact date of the autumn crop of grapes will help to factors such as the climate in the region, the air temperature during the day and at night, plant variety, need to continue to shelter the vines.
Determine the date of the autumn crop of grapes, one should consider the following factors:
- The longer bunches remain on the shoots, the more nutrients are accumulating grape roots. This means that the plant will be stronger and better will take the winter.
- Daytime temperatures should not fall below -5 degrees, as at this temperature vine becomes brittle, the plant may suffer during the trimming or binding shoots.
- Should already occur the first night frosts to sap flow in the grapes stopped, otherwise the escape is "plakat9raquo; and inevitably vymerznet.
- All the leaves from the bush should fall off, a bunch of cut.
Pre-pruning vines is held in September, it will be removed when the harvest of grapes, the second stage is in the middle of October, when it is time to tie the vines to further warming.
Grapes in autumn can be cut in different ways, but the pruning method is to be selected in the first year of life of the plant and observed throughout the growing season.
pruning scheme depends on various factors, such as:
- age of the plant;
- grape sort;
- need winter shelter (frost-resistant varieties or not);
- condensed with vineyard.
In order to correctly cut the grapes in the fall, you need to understand the relevant terminology:
- bole usually called process coming out of the ground at right angles;
- growing point can be called a cordon or sleeve. Cordon grows from the trunk, and the sleeves come directly from the land;
- on the sleeves with fruit vines are located on top and at the cordons are located throughout the run.
Main circuit vine pruning
Autumn vine to be formed to let it spring fruit stems, on which the crop is formed in the form of clusters. cropping schemes depend on whether the grapes take shelter for the winter. Depending on this release out blanket and stam pruning the vineyard.
Fan grafting grape varieties performed for a covering. Such a method of forming vines has several advantages, including fast rejuvenation bushes without reducing the yield and free movement of the shoots, allowing them to bend to the ground and cover for the winter.
Fans of vines need to be formed in the following sequence:
- Pruning young grapes begins in the first year of life of the plant. This autumn, escape is cut off, so that there were 3 buds. spring buds should give new branches, but the young plants may not be enough forces, as a result, not all wake up the kidneys. If all three hatch escape, the average pinch.
- In the second fall is necessary to lay the swirls of substitution. To do this, two shoots pinch out to 3-4 buds.
- Third fall - the formation of sleeves. Vines have this time to stretch more than a meter and a thickness of about 8 mm - this is the future of the vineyard sleeves. In autumn they should be shortened by half, leaving somewhere, half-meter runners. These branches are tied to the wire at a height of about 30 cm from the ground.
- Vine further formed so that the inner sleeves shorter than external.
- Fourth Autumn - the time the final formation of grape fan. Back in the spring remove all the shoots on the sleeves, but two or three uppermost. They should be placed vertically - it shoots fruiting, they are tied to a trellis or support.
- In the fall of the fourth year of the shoots should be cut on the sleeves. Upper fruiting vines pinch in the area of 7-8 buds, leaving only the lower 2-3 buds - it swirls of substitution. I should get a fan consisting of four arms and four fruit vines.
- Every next fall need to cut fruits in the current season, the vines. The next year, they will be replaced new shoots growing from the knots of substitution.
- Old hoses should be cut into two or three buds from the base - it rejuvenates the grapes. These knots are called - hemp recovery.
Autumn pruning vineyards stam method is applied to those varieties that do not need shelter for the winter, so often resorted to this method of the tenants of the southern regions.
Stam pruning grapes in the fall for beginners is done in several stages:
- Pruning begin to engage in their first year - shortened escape to 2-3 buds.
- In the spring of next year bush is necessary to examine and identify the two most powerful germ. One that is larger, will bole, his pinch at the top, to escape becoming stronger. The second process is considered to be redundant bole. In autumn you want to crop the two escape to the desired length.
- In the autumn of the second year cut all the young shoots of vines, except for the two uppermost and strong. These shoots pinch out on two kidneys - a cordon shoulders. On shoot growth at a strong pull on the wire and tie her shoulders cordon.
- Next fall, both shortened escape: one on two kidneys - a knot of substitution, and the second to the sixth cut eye - this, in the future, the fruit-bearing vine.
- Fourth Autumn - time favorites fruiting branches. For their formation is necessary to remove all the shoots on the shoulders of the cordon, leaving the strongest at a distance of about 20 cm apart.
- For the fifth year doing a simple pruning the vineyard - just shorten all the vines to 2-3 buds.
- In the sixth year of the formation of the bole end. To do this, matured over the summer shoots are cut, only the top of the bush is the most powerful pair of vines. One of them is cut to 2-3 buds - mote substitution, the second to the sixth shortened eye - fruit-bearing vine.
- Each subsequent year old vine pruning consists in cutting otplodonosivshie escape. New fruit vines are formed on the substitution of knots.
In the first 5-6 years after planting grapes or fruit, in this period, the plant builds up the mass to form future fruit vines. Therefore, the essence of the young crop of grapes is the formation of the bush, the allocation of those vines, which later will bring the harvest.
After this phase begins fruiting period, it lasts, depending on the grape variety, about 20-25 years old. Pruning at this age is to maintain the shape of the bush, removing old and diseased shoots, formation of young vines fruiting.
After this, the most active phase, comes the extinction of plants, the gardener may conduct renewal pruning in order to extend the fruiting his vineyard.
Beginners who find it difficult to focus on the diagrams and drawings can watch a video about the different stages of development of the grapes and the rules of his crop in every age:
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Cut the grapes in the winter, and the harvest will surprise you!
According to legend, early pruning grapes a few centuries ago, put an ordinary donkey. Italian vine-growers that supplied wine troops of the Roman Empire, noticed that vines, which once bitten donkey, have become much better to grow and give more berries than unspoilt bush.
When is the vine pruning - summer, fall or spring?
Since grapes circumcision was carried out on all the vineyards. Over time, improved technology, allowing to obtain an even greater harvest of berries. Today, knowing how to properly cut off the grapes, even a novice gardener can achieve excellent results.
pruning grapes not only increases the volume of the harvest, but also changes for the better taste, as well as the size of the berries. Furthermore, the procedure accelerates the ripening grapes, significantly facilitates the care of fruit-bearing shrubs and berry picking, because this freedom-loving shrub able to grow in all directions, if it does not form annually.
When ukryvnogo wine preference autumn pruning grapes in the first place, because it helps to hide better quality vines in the winter and to protect shrubs from frost. With the arrival of spring care circumcised in winter vineyard easier, and by the fall of a large number of berries ripen.
Scheme pruning grape
not welcome Spring pruning grapes for the simple reason that to grapes and so hard to heal wounds, as if to cut off the vine at the beginning of sap flow, it will appear on the "tears". As a result, not only do you not wait for a good harvest, but also can kill the plant. At the beginning of March, when the established temperature is below 5 degrees, can be cautious pruning young vines, did not come into fruition or seedlings that have been planted in the fall.
Pruning grapes not only increases the volume of the harvest, but also changes for the better palatability
Summer pruning grapes, in fact, it is not cutting in the conventional sense of the word. In the summer months, the tenants on the bushes pinch the shoots, mint, stepson, break out the unnecessary branches. These treatments are directed at prevention of diseases, an increase provetrivaemosti bush ensuring sunlight bunch, creating favorable conditions for ripening fruit.
Knowing how to cut the grapes in the summer of unnecessary shoots, you will be able to increase the flow of nutrients to the brushes, which will increase the fruit and allow to ripen the vines, which are left for the next year. Can be in addition to thin out the leaves to clusters of "I breathe better."
Prepare grapes for the winter
Now you know that it is better to choose the crop of grapes in autumn, but how to use it correctly? It is best to carry out this procedure in two stages, so you can make sure that leave next year for fruiting vines, which are very well-ripened.
In the first step, once all the fruit from the bushes collected, cleaned of branch units passed fruiting stage of sickly shoots and tops from impeding the development of grapes. Start off the main crop of grapes for the winter It should be a couple of weeks at the end of the leaf fall before the shelter Vineyard. Part of the carbohydrates from the young shoots at this time go into the roots and long-term part of the bushes. If hanging on the vine trellis will take the first few frosts - do not worry, because they are better steeled, but during the trimming temperature should be below -3 degrees, otherwise the branches become brittle.
Circumcision of young seedlings usually does not cause problems: you remove the extra annual shoots, forming a bush according to a certain pattern grape crop, and leaving 3 to 8 arms (rising at an angle from the ground), which will give the harvest. But with years of bush have to tinker, especially if he had never circumcised.
Circumcision of young seedlings usually does not cause problems
Even in the most advanced cases, proper pruning grapes will result in the bushes in order and achieve greater productivity. It does it like this:
- in the first ten days of September to remove perennial sleeves young shoots, which appeared before the first wire stretched at a height of two feet above the ground;
- from shoots that grew on the sleeves above the second wire stretched 30 cm from the bottom wire otchekante the tip by 10% of shoot length and cut all the side stepchildren (do it right you will crop of grapes in pictures);
- in mid-October after leaf select a couple of the most developed shoots at the height of the first two wires;
- lower escape, which has grown from the outside of the sleeves, cut, leaving three or four eye - thus you will form mote substitution;
- higher settling down on the opposite side of the escape cut, leaving five to twelve buds - it will fruit arrow. The number of holes should be equal to the diameter of the escape + 1-2 eyelet replacement in case of freezing or damping off.
As a result, the vineyard must remain the most powerful long-term trunks (trunks, growing perpendicular to the ground) and the sleeve with the kidneys, from which will grow by next summer the new vines and fruit brush. How to cut the grapes in the winter, you understand, we can only properly prepare it for winter: the remaining branches, remove from the trellis, lay aside the vine growth, then fasten to the ground and cover with foil or tarpaulin.
Subtleties of pruning grapes for beginners
Why leave the tenants experienced by 4 buds on a branch of substitution and 11-13 buds on a fruit arrow? This is largely explained by the safety net for the winter, but there are other reasons. Thus, additional buds on a branch of substitution will allow the spring before the crop grapes of extra green shoots, choose the shoots, which form the largest inflorescence. As for the fruit of the arrow, the first two or three buds in the conditions of the northern regions may be unfruitful, since their formation falls on a cool June. Until the seventh inflorescence buds receives an average, but up to 13-15 buds formed the largest inflorescence, formed in July, when enough sunny days, and the air temperature is high.
In the process of circumcision try to wounds and cuts were on the inside of the shoots, the one that faces the middle of the bush. Then they will be faster and more overgrown. Wounds from different sides sap flow branches difficult, because of which bushes yield may decrease. The slices should be as smooth, not a "shaggy".
In the process of circumcision try to wounds and cuts were on the inside of the shoots, the one that faces the middle of the bush
If in addition to the useful recommendations contained in the article, you need a clear example of how the grape crop, video in the corresponding tab will satisfy your curiosity. Learn the theory, try to trim the bushes themselves, and you will be sure to grow a superb crop!