- 1 Brick grubka: masonry scheme
- 2 The furnace-rough with his own hands: from a simple two-storey villa up to the house with a heated attic
- 3 How to build a furnace with a rough house
Brick grubka: masonry scheme
Country house in our country is inconceivable without heating. You can install the boiler, fireplace or stove put. What would be more effective? Any heating system is good if fully meets the needs of the owners, professionally installed - then the heat in the house is guaranteed. Talk about a furnace.
Photo: brick oven
Before you build the oven, you must choose from all the species, which is suitable to you most of all, design. Choose the place and start its installation.
Oven - a traditional Russian invention, which we have inherited from our ancestors. But we will not study history and make sure that the oven will heat your home in any weather. A better look at the practical side of the issue.
It is important to select which oven is better to put:
Grubka brick - solid, reliable, traditional, but the metal stove can be purchased at the store, and it will look solid.
And finishing the brick stoves can be any - will easily fit into the interior of the house. A brick is necessary to lay down, mess ... But do not rush to buy the metal. Experts emphasize that the metal heating stove home can be harmful to health.
According to the standards, the temperature of the heating surfaces should not be more than 90 ° C, otherwise the dust is burnt, releasing harmful odors.
We felt in the hunting house smell of burning metal from stoves? We heard that the stove "burns oxygen"? This is a metal furnaces. Therefore it is better to choose a brick.
Masonry brick furnace
The second question - how to install and mount the oven if other heating systems? All this is determined by the quality of the house, material capabilities and tastes of the owners.
The cost of professional services is determined by the stove-fitter complexity of the project. Usually it depends on the number of bricks in the masonry. On average oven will go up to 1500 pieces - multiply by 1.5-2 dollar and will price you want to pay.
If you decide to decorate the brick stove tiles handmade, it will cost a few hundred dollars per m2. But the simplest grubku can be folded most - from books.
For a small garden may have a better heating and cooking stove, "Swedish" with oven and hob. Complete space situation in the Russian style and relax in nature.
In a country of 2, 3-storey cottage or villa will require central heating and the oven will be a symbol of the hearth. Then it is better to take "Dutchwoman".
Opinions of family members may be divided, one will enjoy the fireplace, the other - the oven. How do both of desire? Fold the oven, which is combined with a fireplace. Furnace door of similar design is carried out with glass and large sizes.
If the system performs the function of the furnace, furnace door is closed, and the smoke goes into the oven channel. If you want to look at the open fire, the bolt forward stroke and the firebox door is left open. And this stove does not take up a lot of space thanks to its compactness.
Apparatus furnace design Russian
Brick high quality - thin seams
It often happens that the house is already built, already live, and suddenly wanted to put the oven. This can be done, although it is quite difficult. Ideal - code decide to put the oven still in the design of the house, and all the "set up" around it.
No wonder they say that the dancing from the stove! Remember, this is important.
In drafting the oven is better positioned closer to the central part of the house to the outside of the pipe was located near the ridge. Sex is better not to have the beams under the stove, and the rafters and floor beams on the stove to make a smaller one.
The roof can be anything, they go well with the trumpets. But the soft roof is better put, when it is ready tube. Otherwise you'll have to tinker. But the most difficult - the furnace brickwork.
Tip! Note the clay solution. If you prepare it correctly, is defective masonry and time consuming. Currently produced a wide variety of compositions on the basis of clay powder. We strongly recommend to use this feature.
Masonry brick grubki
Now, having good tools and high-quality materials, special literature and information, many will want to make the oven with his own hands. This is possible if two conditions:
- any experience.
- authentic materials and information.
This is very important because the information can be very controversial. Write, for example, that in the masonry joints can be 7 and 9 mm. Sometimes advised to put the oven on a wooden floor, and it is recommended to start with the foundation?
What is right? And if you use the services of a professional, how to test it work? You must navigate to the existing standards.
The below tips can be used as a guide for laying brick fireplace stoves:
- By convection ovens are ductless type (with cap) and channel. Currently preferred ductless furnaces which are heated more evenly and reduces the formation of cracks. In addition, they are not blown, and not so bad for them if the valve of the pipe will be closed in time.
Underground furnace system
- Laying seams to do fine, up to 5 mm. For the furnace must be taken fireclay (refractory) bricks. There are two possibilities: Only furnace folded from or part of the furnace. The red brick building in the furnace is destroyed. But it is made the entire array of the furnace. This is normal Burnt bricks teshetsya well, shooting up and falling down does not break into pieces.
- remember, that all the vertical seams are horizontal rows of bricks will need to override the following series. Dual silicate brick 150 m is better to use only part of the pipe above the roof.
Drawing furnace brick
- The furnace required Cleaning - at least 2, one of which is made in the base pipe.
- The overlap between the floors need to trumpet step expansion of masonry - fire cutting. When starting to use the stove, you must check its heating. If the oven is a good figure, on it there are no cold areas, the most heated lower zone.
- The biggest inconvenience is the smoke. Crude grubka may slightly smoke, "poddymlivat". But if after some time after the oven drying in the house heard the smell in the rooms and a small haze, it is necessary to deal with the masonry and invite a professional to diagnose.
- The firebox of the furnace should provide airflow, which will be sufficient to complete combustion, and hold the desired amount of fuel. His device depends on the type of the intended fuel: coal, wood or peat. A grate made so that there is a gap of 5-10 mm between them and the laying of bricks.
- Once put the stove, you need to decide how to make exterior trim: Oblitsevat tiles, plaster, do case of steel or wipe the surface with a jointer.
In our article we will talk about the general rules of the furnace brickwork, which we hope will help you. Videos in this article can become a kind of instruction for you.
The furnace-rough with his own hands: from a simple two-storey villa up to the house with a heated attic
Oven crude source of much confusion. The fact that the "rude" or "grubka" - a term not resist. In the western and partly in the South Slavic languages is rude or simple houses heating and cooking stove or a wood-burning stove for the summer kitchen in the 150-200 bricks. Well, according to resp. demand in runet depart Dutch, Swede, bath (!), bell (!!) of the furnace and others. You can even find a statement, they say, it was somewhere once outstanding designer Grub furnaces.
In fact grubkoy oven, or just rude is a compact heating and cooking stove with heating shield, a separate oven at teplotsiklu but technologically combined, i.e. they are constructed together (see. also hereinafter). Hence the conclusion that the bell can not be rude - heating pads to the furnaces always channel. Their hands rough construction simpler channel furnace equal thermal capacity with a single thermal cycle, requires less material and less weight. However, its thermal efficiency (efficiency for furnaces analogue) below. Therefore crude build in seasonally inhabited areas or small homes with good insulation, where some overruns fuel in absolute terms and in terms of money on a budget does not hit.
Note: heating and cooking of rough bricks to 12 kW of heat requires bricks to 1200; Dutch the same capacity without the cooking surface - 1200-1350, Swedish - 1800-2000, Russian oven - 2500-3500 bricks.
Grubka own hands can be constructed with a shield, built into the body (structure) of the furnace, and then to look at it is indistinguishable from the plate, pos. 1 in Fig. Grubka-plate compact, less material consumption, the most easy, requires a minimum amount of additional construction work, but it is limited by the thermal power 10-12 kW, and then with great straining. Therefore, coarse-plate give mostly seasonal cottages (spring and autumn) with occasional departures there winter hunting houses etc. An important advantage of coarse-plate - it is possible to build without a foundation on the floor, if the load-bearing capacity of at least 500 kg / sq. m.
Rough with an attached flap (pos. 2) structurally complicated and difficult, although a simplified foundation (see. Below) and is suitable for it, but its thermal capacity is potentially greater. Rough wood with an attached flap able to develop 16-18 kW; on coal - up to 20-22 kW. Driving current in the flue gas with a shield rougher given in pos. 3; built on such popular Galanka oven. However, please know that to build a rough more than 3 turns makes no sense: such a furnace with a single cycle will be easier and cheaper. In addition, during the construction will have to be particularly attentive to some peculiarities of furnace-rough, which is devoted to the consideration of a significant part of the paper material.
Note: grubka with wood can be performed also with the stove bench, cm. below. Flushing a coal undesirable bench overheats.
Visually furnace can be roughly distinguished from plate with an attached shield for later integrity of the structure (pos. 4), but in fact they are the same. Calculation tepoeffektivnoy furnace is very complex and requires a fairly deep knowledge in thermal engineering and development of furnace design based on its results still solid and practical experience. Design and build a rough lot easier because of its Combustion (fire) and part of the plate are calculated separately and then "stick together" together by the rules coupling of building structures, taking into account the requirements of heating engineers. Naturally, the thermal efficiency of the resultant device will be lower, since the interaction of thermal cycles of the fire panel and not taken into account, namely through his account and may increase the efficiency of a single furnace cycle. Therefore, if you live in the margins with a harsh climate, rough for you can make sense only as a seasonal furnace temporary use.
The main differences from the rough slabs for solid fuels - the more powerful the furnace and in the absence of combustion pass portion (flue tooth). Tooth delays hot gases under the cooking surface, which plate in summer to reduce fuel consumption by cooking. The rougher it is not needed, because excess heat will be spent on heating.
More powerful furnace grubka oven must have so that the shield provides additional resistance to flue gas current. Chimney with enhanced traction will not help here: the gases expand in the panel immediately cool down. Their thermal energy into mechanical switch, which successfully fly into the chimney. Figuratively speaking, the furnace to the chimney in the furnace with a shield works on the principle of push-pull, and "pull" here - the more power the furnace. This explains the special requirements for the furnace and furnace fittings grubok. See below.
Depending on the purpose of heating pads are tough for them to perform different types. System design shields to the furnaces are given in Fig. below; Fuel portion everywhere is shown conventionally.
System design shields for furnaces
- Process of short vertical channels. Materialoemok the least and the most easy to build. Impedance current greatest gases. Compactness and furnace thermal efficiency averages. More often all applicable scheme;
- Process of horizontal channels. Massogabarity the same furnace as in prev. case, but to build a shield with the horizontal channels is much more difficult. Resistance to current gas approx. 1.5 times less. As a consequence - the thermal efficiency of the furnace above. Perhaps the device couches, ie upper channel not strongly heated;
- Process of long vertical channels. Thermal efficiency as that of the shield with horizontal channels, technological complexity - like a panel with short vertical channels. It occupies the smallest area, but requires a lot of material and a good foundation (see., Etc.) due to the large surface pressure on the support. Optimal variant for house heating furnace 2-3 in the room, see hereinafter.;
- Parallel move. High thermal efficiency, the smallest mass per unit output. Footprint and technological complexity of the greatest. Can be used with a furnace reduced power. Optimum for an extension to the existing slab, without remaking it.
Note: there are still guards a series-parallel circuit or chess. The most complex, but also very light, resistance to current gas have the least. The only possible option for rude in the house with a heated attic. See below.
Again: the dignity of crude - the compactness and the possibility of building in an existing home without the production of capital construction work. But to put a more powerful furnace in the furnace structure is generally the same size is not so easy, from excessive thermal load it all quickly will become worthless. If not complied with specific requirements for:
- Fundam furnace.
- Methods furnace masonry structure.
- Selection and methods for installing fittings furnace.
The design of the foundation under the rough is shown in Fig. Crushed stone cushion without sand bedding leveled before pouring into the horizon. Pouring the solution M150 - M300 cement and sand of 1: 2. The gap between the rubble foundation and floor covering - 30-40 mm. Do not forget to cut logs to back! Leaving them hanging all - a common, but a blunder. The dimensions of the foundation in terms should act on the furnace circuit is not less than 100-150 mm.
Apparatus furnace foundation crude
Note: brick bed on a foundation laid for the furnace with ligation in rows and between rows as well as the first 2 rows of the furnace masonry structure, see. forth.
To fold rougher used solutions of 3 types, see. Fig. below. Bed on the foundation and chimney laid on lime mortar as the combines sufficient heat and humidity, but the bottles need to be laid only on a completely moisture-proof cement-sand mortar. The sand on the clay solution is highly desirable to take a mountain or ravine, with rough grains. Plain clay - purchase kiln, guaranteed fat content and, most importantly, clean. Soul-clay, brought to the desired fat content of sand, laying on rough little use.
Formulations for masonry mortars furnace crude
For rough masonry chimney is used and if poryadovkoy (see below.) Provides chamotte bricks; Red working super fit - light red (fully annealed), without spots burnout, warping and buckling. Brick molding dry completely unsuitable. rough masonry structure is conducted on the trail. rules:
- If you are inexperienced setter, each row of masonry, first laid out to dry; defects found cutting / chipping bricks removed.
- Each brick before laying soaked in solution until no more air bubbles. Thump all the bricks in the barrel can not be indiscriminately!
- A layer of 5 mm of the solution is applied to the bed and poke stacking brick.
- Stacked brick smooth movement slightly obliquely placed and moved towards the previous one, so that the seam is not left air bubbles.
- Brick pressed until seam converges to 3 mm; rap is impossible!
- Between normal and fireclay masonry initial seam of 8-10 mm; after pressing - 6 mm.
- The seam between the bricks and the metal mortgage details (see below.) - 10 mm.
- Squeeze trowel (trowel) are removed from the excess solution seam.
- Detected after cleaning excess solution recesses in the seams are filled with a solution of the indentation without transverse movement, but not mashing!
Prefer to learn visually video tutorial masonry heating and cooking stoves can be viewed below:
Video: brickwork, boiler-heating furnace
Improper installation of the furnace door
Accessories and grate for rude needed iron alloy; door and gate - with a mounting skirt and the holes in it under the diagonal wire mustache. Fittings welded steel or cast iron lugged in direct whiskers (stacked along resp. The furnace wall), in this case unsuitable. However, to put the door / gate as shown in Fig. Right, can not be in the rough; this is not on the stove rules. Villa for Dutch bricks to 2.5 in terms of which stoked once or twice a season, maybe, and go, but not rude.
It is necessary, firstly, to compress his mustache (wire - Galvanized 2-3 mm) wrap so as not to move. Squeeze first tightly not, set the desired angle (from the distal end to the inner side whisker masonry should be more than 12 mm). Then gently tighten shake the door / gate valve slightly. We do not leave? Good. Then, secondly, the need to tightly wrap skirt asbestos cord (or basalt fiber), and only now put in place. About installing accessories in the oven you can also see the following video.
Video: grate and cooker
On ris.nizhe given poryadovkoy simple grubki for seasonal cottages or temporarily inhabited house. Feature - minimum use of refractory bricks (highlighted textured filling), without which in the rough, in general, it is difficult to do, and the niche above the cooking surface. In cold weather it speeds up cooking, and if the outside is already warm enough, does not allow the stove to overheat the room for cooking.
Poryadovkoy simple villa furnace crude
On the trail. Fig. - poryadovkoy odnokonforochnoy rude too compact and lightweight, but it is more difficult, with a combined system of canals. This variant is more suitable for hunting house or garden, which is carried out in winter holiday.
Poryadovkoy boiler-heating furnace-rough for regular use
Further, in Fig. - poryadovkoy house heating and cooking rude to switching to winter and summer course (two-way). Stove, this is quite complicated, but quite economical and winter, and the summer course. Option for permanently inhabited cottages or one-room house.
Poryadovkoy house, boiler-heating furnace rough with winter and summer course
On the trail. Fig. - poryadovkoy drawings heating and rough - kaminopechi (fire door can be glass) Housing rooms of 2-3. The 2-room it is placed in the rough pier, and a 3-room apartment - a facade in the living room and the rear 2 adjacent to her room; partition between them falls on the back side (back) of the furnace. Agree 650 bricks in the heating furnace for a 3-room house, it is a little.
Poryadovkoy heating furnace-rough for 2-3 bedroom homes
Now - in Fig. poryadovkoy following diagram and rough with stove bench: ceramic part in the kitchen / bathroom with hallway; lezhanochnaya - in the living room. This is already a very complex design for the skilled stove-maker. For heating during the warm couch covered with a quilt, and so that the room is not overheated, but then the windows in the kitchen / hallway have to keep wide open, because switching to a summer course is not provided.
Scheme poryadovkoy and heating and cooking-oven with a stove bench crude
And finally - the rough, so to speak, aerobatics, see Fig.. as follows: for the house with a heated attic, where is the extra flap with chess channels (inset bottom right). This oven can also be oven-fire if the furnace door to take the glass. She's 2-way; ZLH the drawings - Valve summer travel.
Poryadovkoy 2 cozy heating furnace rough Housing with heated attic
Chimney for rude must meet all fire safety regulations. Here it is necessary only to observe that the best chimney for the coarse - sandwich, because it also does not require additional capital construction work.
If the rough - your first furnace (which is quite possible), take the time to build, simulate first on the table. Suddenly the usual little spare some money - you can buy a set of furnace modeling with diagrams poryadovok and plastic building blocks on a scale are sold. No - bricks also in the scale can be cut out of the foam. Then imitate seams masonry conveniently using strips of heavy paper or paperboard, depending on the selected scale.
How to build a furnace with a rough house
To heat homes currently use very different components and equipment. However, the most traditional choice is considered to be a furnace that can operate from a variety of fuel, and can also have different dimensions and other parameters. They can be created, even fireplaces, but they are not designed for permanent heating of the structure. Very often stoveheating is created in a private home, as often buildings are built in a sufficiently large away from the central heating.
Also, various oven options can be made with your own hands, so this process costs will be minimal.
The main varieties of equipment
There are many varieties of stoves that are distinguished by different parameters. The most popular are considered:
- Russian traditional, which can be used not only for private homes, but also for the bath, or other small structures in need of heating, and they can be equipped with different elements for a comfortable sleeping or cooking;
- Dutch, which can only be used for space heating;
- rough, is quite interesting embodiment, in which there is a heating and cooking panel, which makes them suitable for cooking, and as a heating system.
What products are equipped with a coarse
This oven has interesting options and features. This includes first and foremost the fact that the most popular material for construction of a ceramic brick, which has excellent parameters. excellent heat treat them, so in the house such equipment will ensure a rapid and uniform heating.
This material is considered to be very attractive, so getting out of it products fit perfectly into any interior. Particularly relevant is considered stove created with their hands filled with ceramic bricks, in a rustic style. Well, this oven to approach the buildings made of wood.
Grubkoy furnace designs are improved as compared with straight-through elements. But, at the same time, to create their own hands is not so difficult, and their very the device is considered to be a simple. However, to make really high-quality and robust design, you must carefully follow the instructions and have at least the initial skills to work with a brick.
To perform all the steps of their own hands, you need to have an idea of what components are part of the equipment. These include:
- Ash pit, which is a special chamber for the passage of air. Typically, it contains suitable size door, which allows a person to regulate the air supply. Typically, between this element and the oven chamber, where the fuel is combusted, it has a grate firing.
- Topochnik is the working chamber which is designed to load and fuel combustion therein there is a door.
- Convector furnace is presented in the form of vertically arranged channels, which extends the heated gas from the combusted fuel.
- Grubka, which is used for cooking, can have different dimensions and parameters.
- Chimney performs the function of the convector, but its main purpose is to conclude the exhaust gas from indoors to outdoors. It is important that it had a door, for cleaning the pipe and valve.
Before you create a design must be designed and draw a diagram of future equipment, and this issue should be approached with great responsibility and seriousness. After all, the drawings are the basis for creating the most stoves. If they are errors or omissions, it can lead to the fact that his hands get the design that will not cope with its main objectives, and can also be at all dangerous to use.
What materials are used to create the stove
Make this design can be from entirely different materials. These include:
- Brick, which is used for laying out of it created not only the stove, but the fireplaces. It is best to choose a ceramic brick, from the appearance of which depends attractiveness final construct.
- Clay and sand, which are used to create a solution to be used for laying bricks in the house.
- Cast iron grate used for stacking fuel, it can be used for both wood and coal.
- Roofing material, which allows you to create quality waterproofing furnace.
- Doors for various structural elements.
To build a good and reliable equipment, all materials must be of high quality and beautiful, so their choice should be treated very seriously.
Make this design really is not that difficult, but it is important to know what steps should be made, and each should be paid a lot of attention:
- Creates future circuit design. Drawings can be formed independently or with the help of specialists. They need to pay a lot of attention, since they determine the reliability and safety of the final structure. The circuit should comprise dimensions and other the basic parameters of the stove, but it should be all painted in detail. Even if fireplaces are standard or design without grubki, must still be the drawings. The circuit is typically formed by special computer programs, but the presence of skills and expertise can be do it on paper.
- Creating the stove base. Since fireplaces and stoves often are formed from bricks, they should only be installed on a sturdy and solid foundation. It must have optimum dimensions and parameters for the furnace, which you are planning to build. The place for the construction, sees the desired thickness and trench depth, thereafter the bottom of a well compacted and laid theft of sand and gravel. Next, concrete mortar is poured, after which the trench is filled with bricks. The resulting foundation wrap the roofing material for high-quality insulation. All work is easily performed own hands with no problems.
- Formation of structures themselves. The stoves or fireplaces stacked ceramic bricks, the mortar must be applied. When you create designs in the house it is best to use during fireclay powder, which does not allow the furnace to heat the surface too much during use. The oven can be created by using different types of masonry. Prior to use, the bricks should be soaked about 10 minutes in the water. During laying it is important to do so to avoid cracks and gaps, but use too much of a solution for masonry and do not need, and you can get a low quality and uneven furnace.
- Installing rude. On to create a number of bricks put the blower housing, and the door is attached to it. It is best to wrap the cord all the elements of the asbestos, then put about another 4 brick row. It is necessary to close the oven door. Next mount the grate, and after laying the last row of bricks can proceed to the installation plate, which fit using a solution.
- Chimney installation, which is typically a pipe that goes outwards. It is important to place the passage through the wall element to apply thermal barrier.
Thus, to form their own hands with the stove grubkoy simply, this creates a design that will be used for efficient heating of the whole house for a pleasant and easy cooking.