- 1 Spring pruning grapes for beginners
- 2 Grape Pruning for Beginners
- 3 How to cut the grapes, VIDEO for beginners
Spring pruning grapes for beginners
All the most important thing going on at once. This is what happened with grapes. Once chewed his ass, but it turned out that he did a great favor. Harvest from these bushes has been better. Since then, the grapes began to be cut off. With the care of shrubs perfected over time. And now, knowing how to properly held the grape crop in the spring, for novice gardeners is not a problem to get a good harvest. The bushes are found in almost every garden, but only nelenivyh owners are able to make delicious fruit and a rich harvest.
When the best vine: the fall or spring?
Pruning grapes can increase yield, improve the size and quality of berries, but also take care of the bushes becomes much easier. Improving the properties of berries directly connected to the fact that the grapes do not need to give up their powers and juices huge vines. This allows clusters of getting more power. Before each novice gardener, the question is when to pruning grapes: spring, fall or summer?
Cut the plant in the fall or early spring. Time is necessary to choose, guided by the climatic characteristics of the region and bush varieties. Some areas do not allow to cut the grapes in the late autumn. This is due to too severe winters. In such cases, pruning is transferred to the early spring until the grape buds have not started to swell, and the juice of vines still not moving. Carry out pruning, when the air temperature is 0-3 degrees, but not in May. Spring pruning grapes is done for the young shrubs and high-grade, non-persistent frost.
If the winter in the region is not too harsh, do pruning in late fall, after 3 weeks, as the fall off the leaves from the bush. It promotes better healing "wounds", prevents the risk that the bush "cry" and lose a lot of nutrients, which is fraught with a poor harvest, and sometimes death of plants. This is a common mistake beginners who do not know when the vine in the spring. Therefore, most gardeners recommend to carry out the process before the winter. Autumn bushes trimmed easier to hide from the cold.
Experienced winemakers produce "crop" even in the summer before flowering. This is different from what is done in the spring or fall. Summer purified grapes without secateurs or other sharp tools. During this period, the lower part free of leaves, leaving clusters of opportunity to get more sunlight. In the middle and upper parts of the bush harvested berries.
Such an approach is chosen not wasted. More nutrients gets to the bottom of the vine, which all clusters are concentrated. Winemakers are confident that due to the force of gravity to the top of not getting all the minerals, which are necessary for an amazing taste and extra fruit, which will select the power from the bush just to anything. It is better to get a smaller amount of grapes, but with large and tasty berries.
Terms and grape pruning scheme for beginners
process itself - it is not difficult, but requires some knowledge. Improper pruning grapes do not yield the desired results, but can lead to the death of a bush. The process is best carried out in several stages, in order to avoid errors. Terms of pruning young and old already formed hive differ. An important condition is that you must remember to beginners - removed all excess vines, but no more. The main thing to realize that unnecessary and which branches should be left.
The second important point in pruning grapes is a tool. To carry out works only need a durable and sharp secateurs. This will help to cut the vines with one firm motion. Shoots thereafter will not delaminate, the process will take less painful for the plant. For the first experiments to choose the best grades with good stability and adaptability, for example, grapes Isabella.
If the plant grows the first year, it is important to determine how to properly trim the young vines in the spring. The objective of the formation of grower gets for a summer one, but the strong escape. Everything else is removed. Weak shoots are selected the forces that are necessary for the formation of a good vine. Give preference to the choice of escape for the sleeve should be the one that is located in a hole about 10 cm below ground level. Even this one need to run a garter. Support is able to serve a peg.
Sometimes, in the first year on the bush are formed buds. Leave them all does not make sense - clean, leaving a few berries. Do not feel sorry for them, a two-year bush present harvest is several times larger. If the vine is not the inflorescence, it does not mean that it is not necessary to remove excess leaves and pinch it with him. Such actions are required to obtain a good harvest in the future.
The old bushes are cut in several stages. First crop takes place in September, while the leaves have not yet fallen. At this time, perennial sleeves exempt from young vines. If the branches are a little higher, they eliminate the stepsons, also cut about a tenth of the length of the shoot. The second phase of the grape crop is at a time when the leaves have fallen, and the nutrients are not in the vines, and moved to the root and sleeves.
In the second step choose the most developed shoots. One is located at the bottom is cut, leaving 3-4 buds. This escape knot will serve as a replacement. On the other hand pruned vine, leaving a 5 or 6 eyelets that are formed fruit arrow in the future. Clipping grapes always leave a few extra holes. They need to form a rod in the case of freezing, but if the eyes are not useful, they are cut in the spring.
If the bush had never been cut, but he had already formed, do not despair. Launched grapes still be saved. To do this, leave a few branches to form a bush sleeves, the rest are removed without regret. On the sleeves leaving only those shoots that will be needed for future fruiting. Perhaps one will have to wait a year without harvest, but after the bush will grant you large clusters.
How to cut the grapes on the arch (the gazebo)
Many winegrowers prefer to shape the bushes on the arch or arbor. Their cultivation and cropping has some peculiarities. For arbours and arches fit only frost-resistant varieties of grapes. Such support is not possible to harbor a bush. The main objective of the formation of grower gets the correct form bowline plants. The rest of the process is no different from cutting in the other pillars - removes weak and nevyzrevshie shoots, in addition do not forget about the handle and replacement of spare little eyes for the safety net.
To decorate the arches and gazebos often thrown maiden or a wild grapes. Grades are unpretentious, but look great on legs. The main advantages of these types is that they are almost not exposed to disease, grow fast, well acclimatized. For them fits any land, they are resistant to cold, harsh winters. Another advantage is considered that it does not require special support to build. Grapes clinging to the slightest roughness and can braid the facade. What it looks like, look at the photos.
Grapes are large, if the grapes provide the appropriate care. During flowering, take care of that on the bush was not extra inflorescences - leaving just 1-2 on the branch, and the rest are removed. To get a good harvest, the future bunches need sunlight. To this end, pinch off the excess leaves, which put them at a shadow, and interfere with the normal form and evolve. Take care, and that the nutrients are not left in the young green shoots. They are recommended to be cut off at the level of the fourth leaf, which is located behind the last inflorescence.
Video tutorial on spring formirovke vines
Pruning grapes in the fall is not to say that the spring will not require any work. On the contrary, spring - the best time for the formation of correct vines. At this time, you can see which shoots survived the winter, and what can still be removed. In the video tutorial below clearly demonstrated the removal of excess shoots, which will interfere with the vines to reward his master a rich harvest. The video shows examples not only for large shrubs already formed, but also young. A clear, accessible explanation will quickly master the process, even a novice.
Grape Pruning for Beginners
pruning grapes - one of the most difficult events held in the country. Sometimes it is difficult to understand, how to properly trim the vines and when.
Trimming vine pruning is reduced to 90 percent of vines, leaving the required number of holes (kidney).
Let us consider in detail the secrets of proper pruning vines, starting with the first year of planting.
Pruning grapes can be produced both in spring and autumn. When pruning a bush in the autumn it is desirable to cover for the winter, protected from frost. If your local harsh winters, then spend the spring pruning or harboring the vine in winter. By the way, Uncut grapes better tolerate winter.
Features of the structure and names of parts of the vine
The base of the trunk, which is in the ground, called heel, roots grow from it.
shtamb - part of the stem to the first side shoots, as in all the trees. Grapes and part of the trunk is under the ground, the heel ends.
Head - thickening on the main stem, which depart from the side shoots.
Sleeves (shoulder) - a lateral shoots extending from the main stem. And the eyes of them, it is the same kidney.
There are terms that you must remember: fruit and twig arrow replacement.
fruit shooter - the length of the cut sleeve, which is left after cutting renal 8-12.
Twig replacement - short sleeve, after trimming is 2-4 buds.
fruit link - shoot a couple consisting of a knot of substitution and fruit arrow. All names we discussed, we turn to the secrets of pruning grapes.
There are a lot of options of formation of the vine. Let us dwell on the most simple and understandable - the shoots start to grow not vertically but horizontally.
Formation of vines in the first year
In the spring at the central escape left 2 the lowest buds, the rest is cut off. 2 of them grow their escape, and tie them obliquely in different directions.
Late autumn, when leaves fall off all, before this can not be done, or grape juice runs out, shortening the shoots. One subject short escape, leaving two kidneys second escape leave long, leaving four kidneys. In winter, the vine shoot with trellis and cover.
Forming grapes for the second year
In the spring, after the danger has passed severe frosts (early April), remove the cover and tie rod to the bottom wire trellis, tops in different directions.
Stems, buds grow back from, let vertically or slightly tilted toward the center of the bush.
In autumn, after leaf fall, long sleeve cut leaving 2 to escape. The sleeves are the same. Then trim the vertical stems: those that are closer to the center and down the main stems, cut leaving two buds. This is a knot of substitution.
Vertical stems located further cut leaving at 4 buds - it will be the fruit arrow. Remove vines and lodge in the winter.
Formation of the grapes in the third year
In the spring, after the pass by frost, remove the cover from the vine. Long fruit arrows to the lower tie wire trellis horizontally apices in opposite directions.
knots replacement allowed to grow vertically. During the summer, of all kidney grow stems. In early August, spend minting - trimming the stems of 10-20 cm This will increase the quality and quantity of berries..
August did not spend before minting, or weight on the vine shoots appear.
In the autumn, after leaf, crop otplodonosivshie extreme 4 vertical shoots with a piece of hose.
As a result, on each shoulder will remain one link with two vertical shoots. Their pruning also, in the second year. Escape the closest to the center of the cut leaving two buds, leaving long 4 buds.
All subsequent years, vine growth, carry out pruning similarly as in the third year.
Note: for more reliability and power reserve, the shoots can leave more buds, but no more than 10 each. This is done in case of frost damage.
For example, the optimal amount of 3 knots on the kidney substitution and 6-7 in fruit buds arrows. In the spring, when all the buds survive, excess can be trimmed.
Video - step by step Pruning grapes
Here are the key secrets for the crop of grapes in autumn, the observance of which will be the key to quality and a large crop of berries.
How to cut the grapes, VIDEO for beginners
Probably not is an open secret that the correct and timely pruning grapes - one of the most important operations in the vineyard.
It affects not only the annual number and quality of the harvest contact, but also the general state of the plant, the ability to resist diseases and pests, the successful development during the growing season and a prosperous state of the grape bush in the cold season.
Beginners may seem husbandmen process of pruning the vine is quite complicated and confusing, but it's not so difficult, the main thing to understand the essence and learn how to trim it is technically correct to carry out in practice.
And to help you in this, our today's article and video to it. The article has a review character, learn more with each of the presented methods of pruning you will be able to separate materials from the site by clicking on links "Read more .." or a list of articles in the bottom of the page.
The timing of pruning grapes. Fall or spring?
Weeping grapes after spring pruning.
Pruning grape plants is done at rest. In this state, the grape is in the cold season. All biological processes in the aerial parts of the bush, including the sap flow is temporarily stopped, and grapes without any loss carries both forming the small cutting and removing a considerable part of long-term timber.
In the resting state the grape comes after the natural leaf fall with the first night frosts, and comes out of it in the early spring, when the average temperature reaches 10 degrees in your area of residence.
In theory, pruning can be done at any time of dormancy, but in practice to carry out pruning in the cold waist-deep in snow activity unpleasant, and at a covering of grape cultivation is simply impossible. For this reason, the bulk of crop growers spend late fall (November) or early spring (March to April) to bud.
If you are in the zone of the northern viticulture and lead a covering culture of grapes, it is recommended autumn pruning the vineyard in order to cover up to remove all the unnecessary for the development of next year's vines, which greatly facilitate the process of laying and bush cover. Hurry with the autumn cropping in any case impossible, as should occur outflow of plastic substances with an annual timber in many years and the underground part of the plant, after which the plant is ready for winter and can produce any kind of pruning a bush.
If your geographic location or range of varietal vineyard allows the grapes to neukryvnoy culture - your time trimming Spring. Among experienced winegrowers often ignite debate about the dangers or vice versa harmlessness of the spring crop after the start of sap flow, "weeping" vine. Let's just say, pruning after the start of sap flow is permissible, but it is better not to delay and hold early pruning.
I personally, in conditions of the south of Belarus, spend pruning a covering of sorts in November, a few weeks before the shelter of the vineyard and the onset of the first stable frost and neukryvnyh bushes "Alpha" (in the "Isabella" people) and varieties of Baltic breeding for gazebos - early spring after the snow, while pruning fruit trees and shrubs.
Pruning grapes in autumn, VIDEO for beginners:
Tool for pruning grapes
If you have a young vineyard, the only necessary tool - pruner. If there are old vineyard running bushes or planned omoloditelnaya cropping with perennial shrub removal of elements with a significant thickness of wood - it does not prevent a powerful garden pruner for pruning fruit trees, and in some cases, and a hacksaw. I hope that you have all of this, of course, available.
Well, forward cut? And no, the tool must be sharpened and disinfected. For disinfection tool is enough to wipe his cutting of any liquid with a high alcohol content, but how to make sharpening pruners will show us winegrower Alexander Krot in this footage:
Formative pruning grapes
This type of pruning grapes used in the early years of the life of the vine. When forming pruning removes all non selected elements forming shop bush, as well as weak and vine ripened formed skeletal framework annual plants and fruit-bearing elements - units or fruit vines. During the formation of the young bush lasts from two to four years, depending on the climatic zone of residence, selected winegrower formirovki, vigor plants and the degree of care.
Video trimming and the forming of the fan shape of grapes:
The forming and trimming video cordon forms of grapes:
Every autumn pruning grapes
This type of pruning is carried out each year after the complete formation of the bush grapes and its coming into fruition. This type of pruning is unchanged from year to year, depending on the selected formirovki, and performs the role of maintaining the forming unchanged throughout the bush life. The details of the technique and cutting of various forms of grapes we tell senior scientist agrotechnics GNU All-Russia Research Institute of Viticulture and Winemaking them. ME AND. Potapenko RAAS, the candidate of agricultural Sciences. Hisamutdinov AF
Video Annual pruning the forming of the fan:
Video Annual pruning arch (bowline) formirovki:
Launched pruning old vines
Surely, each novice grower in the area already has a few old vines running condition which, to put it mildly, alarming and fear. To begin with, it should be clearly determine for themselves the future of the bush. If you sort of for some reason are not satisfied, then whether it is worth spending time on his recovery? I am sure that there is. It is much more efficient to use the bush as a rootstock for other varieties, ie pereprivit. But if you are quite satisfied with the variety, the first thing that needs to be done, of course, cut our running bush.
Pruning is done to replace the outdated and lost quality of conductive elements of the forming the skeleton of the bush on the new shoots. This type of pruning in this article will not be considered.
How to cut the grapes, VIDEO for beginners:
Here we are introduced to the main types of pruning grapes. Now you have a general idea of how to properly trim the vines, but I strongly recommend you read all the articles of this column site, listed below, that would further explore each type of crop and the forming separately.
Author: Dmitry Dutko www.vinogradnik.by, authors of the video: A. Mchedlidze, Khisamutdinova, A. Mole, N. Gribanov.
MOVED with personal messages.
I have a small question. On vine, half a meter from the ground, between the eyes, formed fork (bifurcation vines). From its two shoots grown identical thickness (of a pencil) two meters long. How best to proceed with the pruning? Leave as is, or, after all, one shoot cut and thereby provide the best nutrition for the remaining? Somehow it is a pity to cut)
If meaning fastiatsiya escape (see. Photos) better cut this rod below the point of branching. If you do not want to lose this vine (the young seedling and other vines for the forming is not present) in any case it is necessary to remove one of the branch as shoots very high probability of fracture in this part of the future. The reason for this phenomenon is the excessive flow of nitrogen supply to the bush, the mismatch aerial parts of the bush with an underground (strong roots at low load green shoots) or partial damage vines spring frosts when dies main point of growth, and instead forcing new growth point (stepson with kidney as it should be) escape bifurcated such anomalous way.
I would still be below the cut branch, because better to lose a piece of vine now, you cut half the forming in a few years, if something with this place at the skeletal base of the bush goes wrong ...
Many thanks. I like everything, a lot of useful information.
Hello, I am new to growing vinograda.Pri autumn pruning accidentally happened nadlomala main stvol.Podskazhite what to do, how to save the grapes?
and I do not understand
Irina is so lucidly and ponyatno.nadeyus spravitsya.bolshoe thanks
informative video will learn
thank you very much try to cope
With interest watched commercials, learn new things for themselves, now try to practice, many thanks, it was interesting!
I reviewed a bunch of videos about caring for clear vinogradom.Smotrish-all. You come to my grapes, and the questions begin. Where is the speck of substitution? Where fruit arrow? And that should be ruthlessly cut and what to leave.
Thank you so much! Of course, you are a great professional. Just looking at your highly passes as a high art! Great! Just very quickly, but very beautiful. I watched, forgetting everything. Thank you! Very necessary!
It was all very clear, thank you.
Thank you so much, perhaps because of your advice I can get a good harvest
Thank you very much!
Welcome yang your site novichok.no hope to cooperate ....
Thank you was all clear.
Thank you for your sayt.On really need much.
Gold You the man! Thank you so much for your work!