- 1 corpse embalming
- 2 The procedure of embalming the dead. embalm the body in the morgue and at home
- 2.1 embalm the body in the morgue, What is this event?
- 2.2 In what situations require such a procedure?
- 2.3 body protection equipment from the decomposition
- 2.4 Surface "konservirovanie9raquo; dead man
- 2.5 body embalmed at home: why are rare?
- 2.6 That is, a specialist outside the morgue?
- 2.7 Pros and cons of the embalming house
- 2.8 What are the things you need to bring the family of the deceased to the mortuary?
Embalming of the corpse - a soaking of organs and tissues of the deceased substances that prevent their degradation. Embalming agents have antiseptic properties and stop action of tissue autolytic enzymes. Embalming solutions are injected under pressure into the circulatory system using cadaver large anatomical syringes or devices, booster fluid (atomizer, irrigator). If the body is not opened, then the solution was administered through the cannula inserted into the ascending aorta or common carotid (or femoral) arteries. Embalming Autopsies performed on areas pumping liquid in the regional main arteries (common carotid, subclavian, common iliac) after ligation of vessels internal organs. Embalmed cadaver usually takes 6-7 liters of solution.
In forensic - medical practice embalming solution (formalin solution, or a mixture of equal parts of alcohol solution with formalin) injected by syringe into a body cavity and tissue unopened corpse. The following solutions were used for short storage corpse: 10-20% formalin solution; mixture of 100 ml of formalin, 900 ml of water, 10 g of mercuric chloride; mixture of 100 ml of formalin, alcohol, 200 ml, 650 ml of water, 50 g of zinc chloride; mixture of formalin-glycerol mixture (600 ml glycerol, alcohol 200 ml 200 ml formalin, 30 g of potassium acetate) apply (200 ml), glycerol, alcohol, formalin, 400 ml of water, a carboxylic acid 50 in order to preserve the appearance of the deceased and special methods of embalming.
The embalming corpses - administering substances in corpse tissue warning decomposition processes. Embalming corpses produced primarily for educational, scientific, forensic purposes, as well as health and hygiene reasons. Embalming was used, and in order to preserve the bodies of prominent public figures. In embalming corpses centuries-old history. Currently, there are many preservatives, various methods are used. Their choice is determined by the objective of protect the body from decay for a short time or a long time. Since mortem study of cadaver organs and tissues subjected to embalming, difficult, and embalming after autopsy technically relatively complex and often unreliable, in each case, you must first decide what is more important: the postmortem examination of the corpse or its long-term preservation.
Canning (embalming) corpse thin man, a corpse with no signs of decomposition certainly gives better results (even if used primitive equipment) than embalming corpses obese subjects. The high temperature of the medium in which the corpse was before embalming, promotes its degradation and consequently reduces the effectiveness of conservation. Of the preservative substances used in embalming corpses, the most widely used of 5-10% aqueous formalin solution (see. Formaldehyde). However, formalin spoils the skin and does not prevent mold growth; under its influence tissue discolor, become brittle and poorly dissected. In this regard, formalin is added to other antiseptics (thymol, phenol, alcohol, sulemu, carbolic acid, glycerol, zinc chloride). Such a strong disinfecting agent as thymol, added to 10% aqueous solution of formalin calculating manufacture 5% Thymol solution. The phenol used in the same concentration as that of thymol. Phenol is effective against mold, but has an unpleasant odor. For better penetration of the fixing liquid in the tissue as well as to weaken the influence of the bleach formalin was added thereto at the rate of alcohol 10-20%. Used as component sulemu and formalin solution (10% solution), but it spoils the tools attached carcass dark color deprives its natural form. Zinc chloride in 10% use solution, but under the influence of its substantially sealed tissue and take a grayish hue.
Widely used in embalming corpses glycerol. With hygroscopic properties, glycerol prevents drying of fabrics, but in a very large amount reduces antifouling properties formalin and thymol. On the skin of the corpse at the desiccation it appear so-called parchment spots. In such cases, the skin treated by the method of B. P. Vorob'eva weak solution of acetic acid and then hydrogen peroxide is used which whitens tissue and facilitates better action on them glycerol and potassium acetate. The latter, like glycerol, attracts moisture from the air. As a result of these actions on the skin parchment stains disappear. Glycerol roads, and as it has been recommended substitute sorbitol syrup used in pharmacy and cosmetics.
Along with the commonly used preservatives are also trying to use other:., Acetaldehyde, pyridine, ethanol, thiosulfate, etc. Good results were obtained when testing isopropanol, which can serve as a substitute for glycerin. In order to reduce putrid smell preservative to recommend a solution to add essential oils - eucalyptus, lavender, bergamot, origanovoe, pink rate of 0.5 - 1%.
Successful embalming is primarily achieved by careful impregnation corpse preservative liquid. The best results are obtained by the introduction of fluid into the ascending aorta. It is also possible to inject the corpse through the carotid or femoral artery. Flow preservative: when administered through the aorta - about 6 liters, through the carotid artery - about 4-5 liters, through the femoral artery - about 3-4 liters. If the autopsy, then injected separately each part of the body through the appropriate large main artery. Fluid is introduced by means of various devices (apparatus Vyvodtseva, atomizer); You can also use a large syringe or irrigation mug. Body Parts insufficiently impregnated with a solution preservative fill further via respective artery or directly through a syringe needle puncture of tissue. For a better safety corpse fluid is also introduced into the body cavity (peritoneal, pleural), and natural orifice. Intestine preservatives filled by enema tube; bladder - using a glass cannula is inserted into the urethra. Airways fill with a solution through a glass tube drawn through the mouth into the larynx and trachea. Recommended administered cotton swabs soaked embalming fluid into the nasal cavity, nasopharynx, auditory canal, vagina. Good results are obtained subsequent immersion of a corpse in a preservative liquid for a few months. After embalming corpses can be stored in the same preservative solution or dry.
The following methods of embalming corpses are most common.
Method I. Melnikov Razvedenkova. It allows you to store the corpses in the clear. The sequence of steps: a) introducing into the arteries to completely fill the arterial and venous bed preservative liquid (formalin - 100 ml, potassium chloride - 5 g, potassium or sodium acetate - 30 g and water - 1000 ml); b) immersing the corpse for 1-2 months in a liquid of the same composition; c) impregnating the fabric 96 ° alcohol by injection cadaver arteries and immersion in a bath with an alcohol for a few days; in this way recovering coloring sheets (denatured and colored crude alcohol are not suitable); d) immersion of the corpse in a mixture of acetic glycerol (glycerin - 600 ml, potassium or sodium acetate - 400 grams, Water - 1000 ml) for at least 4 months. When the corpse drying characteristics necessary to apply the method Vorob'eva (cm. Above).
II. Joseph Shore-method. It is used to save the prepared bodies. Sequencing:
a) vascular injection 5-10% aqueous solution of gelatin with an admixture of chalk; cordials for arteries to the liquid was added minium, and for liqueur veins - ultramarine;
b) a method for preserving the corpse Melnikov Razvedenkova, Kaiserling or Shor (see Preparations postmortem), c) preparation vascular nerve, muscle.; g) Finally, the corpse in the transparent airtight chamber.
III. Vyvodtseva method. Injection vessels using special apparatus (Vyvodtseva) for prescribing preservative liquid: thymol - 5 g glycerol - 1700 mL, water - 1000 ml. In the manufacture of this mixture thymol must be dissolved in a small amount of alcohol.
IV. Minakova method. It is used in forensic practice. A mixture of alcohol and formalin (tie) is introduced into the peritoneal cavity and the chest, as well as through a hole drilled specifically - in the cranial cavity.
V. Method cast. It is used when it is desired to maintain the body without making incisions. Required 400 ml syringe and special needle cannula and a length of 15 to 125 cm, through which the urethra is advanced further into the required directions (the chest and abdomen, extremities). Injected into the cranial cavity through the nasal orifice. Thus achieved impregnation tissue preservation solution without damaging the skin.
VI. Abrikosov method. The vessels are administered formalin-glycerin mixture (recipe: Glycerol - 600 ml of alcohol - 200 ml, formalin - 200 ml, potassium acetate - 30 ml); corpse then dipped into solutions of ascending concentration spirtovodnye glycerol; 4 months later the body is usually suitable for storage in a dry form.
VII. For a relatively long preservation of corpses for training purposes recommend following preservative liquid: Formalin - 250-300 ml alcohol - 500 ml of glycerol - 1000 ml, carbolic acid 50 g, water boiled - 3000- 3500 ml.
The embalming corpses - fabric impregnation process and the deceased human organ specific substance which prevents their decomposition. First and foremost, this procedure is carried out primarily in the sanitary considerations, as well as forensic, educational and scientific purposes. Nowadays there are plenty of embalming tools and all kinds of methods.
Often the procedure is carried out in a mortuary embalming about 3 hours and 7 liters means, wherein it is necessary to conduct not later than 12 hours after death. The choice of preservatives depends on how long you need to stop the decomposition of the corpse.
Surely, many thought about: how do the embalming of the body in the morgue. Preserving agents have antiseptic properties that allows you to completely stop the operation of autolytic tissue enzymes. Embalming solution was injected into the blood stream at high pressure system of the body, wherein the used specific anatomical syringes large size atomizer or irrigator - fluid pumping, and various additional apparatuses (if necessary). In cases where the body was not opened, a preserving solution is added via cannula, which is initially inserted into the carotid or femoral artery or the ascending aorta region.
Hidden embalming the corpses differently - in selected areas. Funds introduced into the regional artery (also called backbone). It may be common carotid, iliac and subclavian artery. The most common solution is formalin, its composition may also contain alcohol, water, glycerol, zinc chloride or carbolic acid.
Why is it necessary to carry out the embalming
First of all, the embalming of the body in the morgue prevents rotting corpse. Without this procedure, the body can begin to flow and to provide an extremely unpleasant odor, which is unacceptable in a funeral procession. Body decomposes at above-zero temperature, even in mortuary which can reach up to + 4-6 ° C. Embalming makes it possible to carry the body over a long distance, as well as to give the deceased a natural skin color.
Often, embalming carried out in cases where the right to bury the man - it is impossible. It is worth noting that in addition to the embalming, in the morgue can cause a special preservative cosmetics and shaving implement. This procedure is able to hide the post-mortem defects, scars and various wounds, also allows the embalming to disinfect the body. It is worth noting that the cost of embalming quite low.
To date, there are several types of embalming corpses:
The first type is based entirely on the use of preservatives injection. The substances are introduced into the soft tissues of the corpse, which significantly slows their decay. The injection method is used in combination with cavitary (see below). For the procedure requires syringes and needles of different sizes. The injections are carried out in such a way that the dead man does not remain traces of punctures.
Cavernous embalmed body will be filled with a special liquid cavities. This is accomplished through bodily incisions are sutured hereinafter, and through the puncture. This method is extremely effective, it is guaranteed to ensure the safety of a corpse for several days.
The most difficult and time-consuming method of embalming is vascular. Also, it is more expensive, but far more reliable and cavity injection method. Vascular system filled with special substances using high pressure. The vessels (including both large and tiny) apply preservative. Such a process is extremely efficient, it provides the highest degree of protection of the corpse from decay and rot. It is worth noting that the vascular embalming does not apply to the dead, with serious damage to the body and vascular system as a whole (for obvious reasons).
embalming preparations are also divided into several types: embalming, cleaning and predbalzamiruyuschie substances.
It is strongly recommended that only embalmed in institutions. After that, employees of the morgue are obliged to issue a check and a receipt, which clearly signs a procedure that has been made over the deceased. The receipt should be printed embalming service.
The procedure of embalming the dead. embalm the body in the morgue and at home
There are such moments when native people dying far from home and loved ones can not quickly come to spend his cousin on his last journey. In this case, there is a way - embalmed corpse. And now we learn that the term refers to how the procedure is carried out in the morgue and at home.
embalm the body in the morgue, What is this event?
This process impregnating human organs and tissues of the deceased such substances that inhibit their decomposition. Special embalming solution was injected under pressure into the circulatory system of the corpse. And if the deceased did not open, the liquid is introduced through a cannula inserted into the right place.
On the embalming of the body takes about 6-7 liters of solution. Common liquid composition used - formalin in pure form or diluted with an alcohol in equal proportions.
embalm the body in the morgue - the definition of substances in cadaver tissue, inhibiting the processes of decay. This "konservatsiyu9raquo; the corpse is carried out for educational, scientific, forensic purposes and, of course, for aesthetic and hygienic reasons.
In what situations require such a procedure?
embalm the body is used in the following circumstances:
- If you can not hold a funeral right after a person's death.
- If you must wait for distant relatives, who are obliged to bid farewell to the deceased.
- To preserve the body for a long time in hot weather.
- If the person died away from home and need to be transported to his native land.
- To improve diagnostic efficiency at necropsy (postmortem examination and investigation of the body, including internal organs).
- For the funeral in a church or temple.
Where begins the procedure of embalming? Of course, with the preparation of the dead body, which is as follows:
1. It is necessary to put up the deceased person.
2. It is necessary to remove all clothing from the dead. This is necessary to ensure that the expert traced the skin, in control of the entire process of embalming. Genitals necessarily hide behind a sheet or towel.
3. Regular disinfection of the eyes, mouth, ears and nose. This treatment helps to cleanse the body inside and out.
4. Shaving the deceased. Usually remove facial hair.
5. Removal of rigor mortis massage. Pounded the major muscle groups to relieve stress, and massaged the joints, so that they may have weakened. If this is not done, then vascular pressure may increase, but it's definitely hurt the embalming process.
6. It is necessary to close the dead man's eyes and mouth. It should be done very carefully.
7. On the lips and eyelids do not forget to put the cream - it protects them from drying out and give naturalness.
After completing all preparatory procedures specialist goes directly to the embalming process, and after the end of the event the deceased yet to be determined in the coffin, and how it is done correctly, will be described below.
body protection equipment from the decomposition
embalm the body in the morgue can be carried out by four methods:
- Lane preserve dead tissue.
- The injection procedure is savings.
- Surface "konservirovanie9raquo; corpse.
- Vascular embalming.
What is the procedure of embalming the dead will approach a particular dead person, determined by a specialist. Here is a summary, what differences and peculiarities of each body protection techniques from decomposition.
Its essence lies in the processing of the internal organs of the corpse, because the fastest decay processes begin to occur in the abdomen and chest. This method is divided into two more subspecies:
In the first case a puncture is made in the peritoneum and flows through the opening to an antiseptic solution (about a half to two liters). Embalming body in mortuary via split method is carried out as follows: a small section is performed with penetration into the anterior translucent serosa directly into the cavity. This method is used in such cases:
- If you need a long-term transportation of a corpse, and has already begun putrefaction.
- If the dead are too fat.
This method is usually used in conjunction with the puncture. Specialist impregnates an antiseptic solution soft tissue exposed parts of the dead body - face, neck and hands. It introduces a small amount of liquid and thus also makes a gentle massage. This is to ensure that the preservative is evenly distributed.
Surface "konservirovanie9raquo; dead man
This method is clear to many on the basis of its name. embalming procedure in this case is performed as follows: on the damaged skin (wound decomposition) is applied to the special composition and tanatogel. This method is the most easy and accessible, because it does not need to puncture the body, making incisions and injected into the liquid.
This is a very complex process which can competently carry out only an experienced pathologist. By the way, it is very rarely used this method of saving the body. In this case, special embalming solution is injected through arterial blood system. With this method the deceased's body is preserved in a very long time.
The last stage - a dead space in the tomb, and for this it is necessary to perform the following measures:
1. It is necessary to thoroughly wash the deceased: to wash off the blood and body of chemical elements left after embalming, by means of the disinfectant that has been used before.
2. It is important to give a person a natural look thanks to makeup. You also need to mow nails and comb her hair.
3. Putting on clothes. Normally, the deceased's family chooses, in that their deceased relative will be dressed, so they bring furniture in advance.
4. Determination of the body in the coffin. Calmly and carefully should shift the dead man in the tomb. If relatives do some comments and express their suggestions about the appearance or position of the body, it is necessary to use them and do as they want close to the deceased.
The procedure of embalming the dead, whose photos can be seen in this article, is held in the morgue, if a person came to the hospital, or at home. However, in the latter case, it is sure to relatives should be at the hands of a medical report on the death of a loved.
The procedure itself lasts from 2 to 4 hours. It is desirable to carry out no later than 12 hours after the establishment of death.
body embalmed at home: why are rare?
Saving the body of the deceased most often occurs in the morgue, and why it is there now, and face it.
- Since the embalming procedure - the event is quite specific, it is not every family will agree to her home.
- To date, the few cases where the deceased can leave the home without sending it to the morgue for an autopsy.
- In hot weather, a funeral can be made until the third day, of course, if the family will not mind.
That is, a specialist outside the morgue?
Embalming is performed at home under a simplified scheme - the usual method of fixing cavity. Specifically - specialist makes injections of 10 percent formalin solution in a circle, starting from the xiphoid process of the sternum, entering from 50 to 150 ml of liquid depending on the location. Internal organs expert does not touch, except the lungs. The specialist must be careful and cautious in order not to damage the large intestine in embalming.
Also, a person performs plugging nose and oropharynx. This is to ensure that the body fluids do not run down. On the dead man's face superimposed special makeup or the mask (it needs to be replaced periodically until the burial).
Pros and cons of the embalming house
- The deceased is in the walls of his home, as he wanted, and relatives all the time will be in proximity to the deceased person.
- embalming procedure is not in the morgue for those segments of the population, which is prohibited by religion to make cuts on the body of the deceased.
- Such a method is suitable for the dead previously suffered from liver diseases, while vascular "konservatsiya9raquo; body (blood substitute for formalin) often leads to drastic changes face.
- If relatives want to personally monitor the progress of the work of specialists.
- For expert - security of working with HIV-infected bodies. Since there is no direct contact with the blood, it significantly reduced the risk of transmission of the disease. With this method of scalpels and other cutting objects are not used, only the needle for introducing the liquid in the cavity.
- Procedure cheaper than similar, executed in a mortuary.
- Term savings of the body reaches only 4-5 days.
- Relatives have to change the mask on the face, which for many will seem a real challenge, however, as the whole procedure.
What are the things you need to bring the family of the deceased to the mortuary?
To the dead man resulted in "normalnyy9raquo; view, relatives should provide such things for men:
- Clothes (shorts, shirt, socks, shirt, shoes, tie, suit, handkerchief).
And for the dead women need these items:
- Clothing (underwear, socks, a nightgown, a scarf on the head, shoes, clothes from the top - dress, suit or gown).
- Cologne (Eau de Toilette).
embalming procedure is not very much and cheap, especially if you make it to the morgue. The average price of "konservirovaniya9raquo; home of the deceased is in the range 3500-5000 rubles. And such an event in the morgue costs 10000-25000 rubles, depending on the method chosen.
Now you know what is embalming, as this procedure is carried out in the morgue and the methods experts use to preserve the body for a long time. Found that such an event can be done at home, by the way, it will cost much cheaper. But not every family is able to agree to embalming in the walls of his house. But be that as it may, wherever it is held, it is necessary to know: body integrity, and in the case of the funeral of the deceased need to hold such an event.