- 1 Sound insulation of the ceiling in an apartment or a house - how to make your own hands and sound insulating materials
- 1.1 What is the ceiling insulation
- 1.2 Sound insulation of the ceiling in the apartment
- 1.3 Sound-proofing materials for the ceiling in the apartment
- 1.4 What better insulation for the ceiling
- 2 Soundproofing the walls and ceiling with his hands
- 2.1 Types of noise, and options for addressing
- 2.2 Features soundproofed apartments in the houses of different types
- 2.3 Elimination of construction defects
- 3 How to make 1 day soundproofing the ceiling of the apartment below the suspended ceiling with his hands
- 3.1 What is the difference between a material for ceiling insulation?
- 3.2 How to select the right material?
- 3.3 3 the most successful method of sound insulation of ceilings in the apartment
- 3.4 Walkthrough: Soundproofing ceiling plasterboard
- 3.5 Tricks and secrets of sound insulation for ceilings,
- 3.6 Suspended ceiling with a framework of noise insulation slabs
- 3.7 How else can you get results?
- 3.8 The cost of the ceiling insulation
- 3.8.1 How to whitewash the ceiling and save money on this?
- 3.8.2 How to choose the best paint for the ceiling
- 3.8.3 How to make the installation of suspended ceilings
- 3.8.4 How to clean the suspended ceiling without divorce: how to wash glossy and matte ceiling
- 3.8.5 As the plaster ceiling in the apartment with his hands?
- 3.8.6 How to make plasterboard, so it did not fall on his head
Sound insulation of the ceiling in an apartment or a house - how to make your own hands and sound insulating materials
Using advanced noise insulation materials allows to achieve excellent sound insulation of the ceiling even with hardwood floors. No design houses do not allow their residents an absolute guarantee of protection against noise. As a result, sound insulation of the ceiling in the apartment is very urgent. Reduce noise to acceptable decibel is quite possible, if properly equip a sound insulation protection.
What is the ceiling insulation
Sound insulation and soundproofing - not the same thing. The first parameter is evaluated the degree of reduction of the sound wave energy when passing through walls or ceilings. A noise reduction - is how the sound pressure waves decreases when it passes through the barrier in the form of slabs. Soundproofing ceiling estimated builders premises using a certain ratio (RW) in the frequency range from 100 to 3000 Hz. If RW is one, the apartment is fully soundproofed. However, this does not happen.
Sound insulation of the ceiling in the apartment
When it comes to lower the decibel level, penetrating into the apartment from an external source, then talk about soundproofing. Isolate the whole room from penetrating the external sound waves - so well equipped with protection against noise on the walls, floor and ceiling. Sound insulation of the ceiling in the apartment is carried out with high-tech methods using sound-absorbing materials of new generation.
Builders are 4 types of noise that must be addressed:
- impact type noise. Occurs when a sound wave from impacts on the floor or walls. The residential structures is the stamping of feet, the noise from the movement of furniture, working the punch or drill.
- Air noises occur when sound propagates through the air in poor sound insulation of walls, ceilings insufficient absorption of sound. It can be loud voices, music, dog barking, birds singing.
- structural type noise occurs when the resonance of high frequency vibrations of air ducts, elevator shafts. The sound waves thus can spread very far.
- Echo, or acoustic noise, appears in an empty room.
People living in the lower apartment, suffering from the impact of noise and air type wafting from the floors above. Noise isolation from neighbors above are often arranged so bad that my ear to the wall, you can hear someone at the top sits in a chair. The best solution is to soundproof the ceiling from the neighbors above, is considered improvement of sound insulation of floors in the upper apartment. This creates a floating floor construction. It is on the basis of concrete screed with gypsum which is placed on a layer of sound-absorbing mineral wool type Akustik-stop.
Unfortunately, the neighbors above do not always agree on the costs of establishing a sound-absorbing layer on its floor, so the ceiling insulation from impact noise is produced independently. The easiest way is considered to be a device frameless system. It consists of two elements - a special sandwich panel, which is mounted directly on the ceiling, and drywall sheet to be fixed to the panel at the end of works. The process of assembly and order of the layers can be seen in the photo.
frame type system is a conventional ceilings with noise insulation of gypsum fiber board or plasterboard. The advantages of the method include the fact that the surface is leveled, primed, they are sealed all the cracks and crevices, and only then made the installation of insulation and stretch ceiling. The regeneration of insulation should be placed sound-absorbing materials overlap, leaving no gaps between them, otherwise all the work will come to nothing, and to achieve effective sound insulation will not work.
In the house with wooden beams
Wood is a very good conductor of sound waves, in addition, over time, these floors are beginning to creak, so the sound insulation of the ceiling in a house with wooden beams is very urgent. To provide noise reduction builders stacked sound-absorbing material layer on the floor of the upper floors, skirting fixing it, and arrange proofing ceilings downstairs from several materials stacked on each other in layers.
The worst situation in homes panel type in view of the large number of gaps between the panels and low coefficient RW. One sound insulation of the ceiling in the panel house will not help to achieve an effective level of noise reduction, it is also necessary to try to isolate external sound walls and partitions in the apartment in order to achieve the desired result.
Sound-proofing materials for the ceiling in the apartment
Depending on the tasks materials capable of ensuring silence in the flat, are divided into two types: sound insulating materials for ceilings and sound absorbing. Action materials, insulating noise is the sound wave reflected back to the source, so they have a high density. These include gypsum boards, fiberboard and particleboard.
Sound-absorbing materials scatter sound throughout its volume, reducing the number of decibels by about half. These include:
- Soft felt-based materials, mineral wool, fiberglass. RW have reached 70%. They are available in rolls with a variety of terrain - in the form of pyramids, wedges, waves.
- Compressed semirigid materials consist of panels based on glass fibers, mineral wool or polyurethane. RW them comes up to 75%.
- Solid materials based on vermiculite or pumice. These disadvantages apply relatively low insulation.
- The sandwich panels which are "layer cake" within which are liquid or soft shumoizolyatory and outside - solid.
Acoustic ceiling panels
Noise isolation from neighbors above can be achieved by using the following sound insulation panels for ceiling:
- Phonestar, representing wood sheets between which is laid a mineral filler. sound insulation index RW them comes up to 75%.
- Akustik-stop - Polyurethane fireproof panels with cells.
- Akustik-metal sli - sandwich panels consisting of lead plates with polyurethane inserts. It has a high coefficient RW, reaching up to 80%, but their cost is high.
- Comfort Premium - sandwich panels of MDVP, filled with polystyrene or Steklomagnezitovye sheet.
Ensure silence in the apartment can not only with bulky boards or panels. Gaining increasing popularity, roll insulation ceiling. Such a method represents pasting ceilings special materials that constitute the membrane of high density nonwoven polyester fibers. These include:
- Topsilent bitex;
- Tecsound (Teksaund);
- Green glue (Greene Glu);
- Zvukanet acoustics;
- Zvukanet ekotishina.
Soundproofing a ceiling without a skeleton
By means of special panels, which are called ZIPS, made frameless sound insulation ceiling. They represent a sandwich panel of 120 mm in thickness, consisting of GPL inside which is a staple fiber. Each panel has a special vibrouzly for attachment to the ceiling. After installation, you must finish the arrangement ZIPS soundproofing, attaching to the FCL panel.
Sound insulation boards for the ceiling
Construction of noise reduction using sound insulation boards for the ceiling in great demand. The main advantages of mineral plates on the basis of basalt Shumanet-BM, and Knauf EkoAkustik relates ecological purity material safe for human health. Mineral boards resistant to combustion, rotting, moisture. They do not eat rodents, they do not grow fungus and life minplit comparable to overlapping resources on which they are mounted.
Self-adhesive insulation for the ceiling
The new innovative design - a cheap adhesive strip from a specially treated polyethylene Izolonteyp - will help in the creation of self-adhesive noise insulation for the ceiling. This way of creating silence in the house is comfortable, practical and cost inexpensive. The undoubted advantages noise reduction arrangement with self-adhesive tape provides its environmental friendliness.
Traffic jam on the ceiling for soundproofing
Slabs of crushed and compacted oak bark will help to improve the insulating properties of a room, and cork insulation on the ceiling will be ineffective against external impact and air sound waves. In this way, except that you can protect your neighbors from noises coming from your apartment. Cork boards can be used only in combination with other insulation materials.
What better insulation for the ceiling
How to choose the best sound absorption system for the apartments, if the materials that guarantee protection against impact and airborne sound waves are so diverse? Better sound insulation of the ceiling is reached when the mounting plates, sandwich panels or roll sound insulation have been complied with all the technology and installation of noise barrier system was carried out by professionals. When will the slightest gap between the panels or plates, we can say that all the work done in vain - because the sound will still penetrate into the gap and spread throughout the room.
Since the materials and the amount of work to isolate the room from the penetration of external sounds are different, the prices for sound insulation ceiling Moscow may vary. Sound-absorbing materials can be purchased in the online store or ordered from the catalogs of building supermarkets. The price of works on sound insulation of the ceiling in the apartment is shown in the table below:
Price per square meter, rubles
The apparatus of acoustic insulation using mineral boards
Soundproofing roll membrane materials
Soundproofing the walls and ceiling with his hands
At home, even soft sounds from neighbors or from the street does not allow to relax and make the search for ways to protect against noise. We offer recommendations for sound insulation of walls and ceilings of residential apartments, which can be applied to practice independently.
Types of noise, and options for addressing
There are two groups of noise - external and internal. Internal noise create the technical equipment located in the house, and the sounds associated with the life of the residents. 70 percent of them spread through the slab.
Sources of external noise are outside of the building - a transport operation of enterprises, the noise from the public areas.
As a method of forming internal noise is classified as percussion and air.
Upon mechanical impact on the overlap of shock noises appear, for example, during the movement of furniture or repair work.
Air from the source of noise transmitted through the air to the overlap, for example, by turning on the player loudly.
Often the noise is transmitted through the ceiling to the walls and spread throughout the building, this way of sound transmission is called indirect.
The problem is solved complete or partial refining of all the walls and ceiling of the apartment.
Full sound insulation of the ceiling requires revision, the walls of a variety of methods, but requires a full repair flats and costly.
Sometimes the problem can be solved partly soundproofed, for example, eliminating the construction defects in the joints of the walls to the floor slabs or wiring accessories locations. It is also possible to soundproof floor only or one of the walls.
Features soundproofed apartments in the houses of different types
It is impossible to identify the type of house that soundproofing qualitatively different, they all present a common problem - poor sound insulation slabs.
Feature panel houses - massive ceiling and walls of the same, so the indirect sound transmission is very high. Sound in prefabricated houses is transferred from the upper floor down the walls and insulation slabs ineffective. The panel housing is recommended to full soundproofing rooms, including sex.
In brick houses walls thicker slabs, and the sound is attenuated more massive structures. Only the ceiling is often enough to modify to reduce the noise level.
The cast-in-frame houses overlap massive room partitions and exterior walls are often made of lightweight material. As a result, the noise from the floor slab is transferred to the apartment through walls and load-bearing walls. The houses of this type begin to deal with the noise during the construction phase. Partitions do not build up to the ceiling, but leave a gap of 10-20 mm, then it is filled with sound-absorbing material. From noisy neighbors laterally protected partitions constructed from the frame technology using soundproofing guide profiles. Noise from above it is recommended to reduce by means of a false ceiling soundproof.
Materials for noise protection are divided into two groups:
- Noise protection - to protect the penetrating noise from outside the house. Material properties are enhanced with an increase in its thickness. Commonly used in special designs.
- Sound-absorbing - prevent the spread of the noise outside the room. Have a fibrous or a cellular structure allowing to absorb sound. Used to prevent the propagation of sound (eg, music) outside the premises.
The noise level will drop sharply if the first to the wall to fix the sound-absorbing material, then - soundproofing.
For the insulation of apartments often buy such insulators:
Mineral wool - holds more than 90 percent of all types of noise. Sold in rolls or plates. The disadvantages are the loss of their abilities after wetting.
Cork - a natural sound insulation slab material. Good delays impact noise. The negative side - the high cost.
ISOPLAAT - soundproof plate of fiber coniferous trees to reduce all kinds of noise. Thickness - 10-25 mm, plate dimensions 2700h1200 mm. One side is made smooth, for finishing.
ISOTEX - Lightweight flexible plate of fiber coniferous trees for protection against airborne and impact sound. Easy to install, line the walls.
ZIPS - gipsovolokna panels of mineral wool and a thickness of 40 to 130 mm. Buy it and because of the possibility to use instead of finishing the walls.
The insulating material for use in apartments selected with dense structure, about 60 kg / m3.
For noise insulation is not recommended for polystyrene, polyurethane foam, polyethylene foam. These materials are well protected room from the impact noise, but the level of airborne noise can not reduce.
For sound insulation of ceilings are encouraged to collect acoustic ceiling or ceiling on vibropodavlyayuschih suspensions.
The design is effective through the use of special sound-insulating plates that absorb sound. This method can be applied when the ceiling height is within 3 m, for structural thickness of 120-170 mm. Procedure for installation of the system:
- To a ceiling of pre-designed circuit is fixed soundproof suspensions, which will be connected to the ceiling elements. For fixing using anchors or dowels, screws and anti-vibration mounting components.
- To the suspensions are mounted guides soundproof sections. The length of the guide - 10 mm smaller than the size of the room.
- The space between the rails is filled with sound-absorbing plates.
- End of work - fixing plasterboard sheets to profiles.
Suspended ceiling hangers on vibropodavlyayuschih
The design of the building used suspensions for suspended ceiling with built-in anti-vibration blocks. The product prevents the spread of impact noise from the floors to the metal profile ceiling. Vibropodavlyayuschie ceiling height occupied by 170-190 mm, so they are installed, if the distance from floor to ceiling of 3 m.
The procedure for construction of the installation:
- To secure the ceiling vibropodvesy according to instructions.
- By vibropodvesam fix metal profiles.
- Fill the space between the profiles to increase the mineral wool soundproofing.
- To the profile attach special insulating panel.
- To fix the panels initially fine linen, for example, Wolf Vlies, followed by drywall. Between them is a small gap, which improves noise insulation.
To attach the wall frame profile, retreating a couple of centimeters from the surface. The slot is placed noise insulating elements made of rubber or cork.
The frame is filled with sound deadening mats.
The last stage - fastening drywall to the profile.
The main drawback of the method - each design reduces the room size up to 10 cm.
Decorative soundproof panel
Sound insulation properties of the finished panels are similar to gypsum products. This lightweight product, their weight does not exceed 4 kg. When installing fixed to a flat surface. If necessary, the wall made crate and put the rack in the same plane. By sheathing panels attached liquid nails and are joined together by the "tongue in groove". After installation, decoration of the walls is not required - the surface looks very nicely thanks to a fabric or paper finishing. In this way, it is recommended to isolate completely flat, rather than a wall.
Round insulator is fixed to the surface of wallpaper paste. Noise performance is reduced after only 60 percent. Such a method is used, for example, during a stay in a rented apartment.
Elimination of construction defects
Reduce noise from neighbors can be, if you do the simple guidelines to eliminate defects builders.
Electrical sockets and boxes
In apartment buildings to install electroaccessories sometimes break through the walls of the through-holes. The result is a channel between the neighboring apartments, in which noise enters the room.
The problem is solved as follows:
- Remove the power outlet and wiring box.
- Measure the diameter of the hole and cut the size of a pad of mineral wool, asbestos cloth or basalt cardboard.
- Place the gasket into the opening until it stops, seal putty. Prohibited mounting foam used for this purpose because of the high flammability.
- Mount the socket.
Similarly sealed mounting holes (terminal) electrically box. They are covered with plastic lids and under the wallpaper, you can find them, if the knock on the places of their proposed installation.
To pass the heating and water pipes through the ceiling using anti-vibration pieces of pipes. Their diameter is larger than the diameter of the pipes, so there is a gap between them, which shall be filled with sound-absorbing materials and be stopped outside the filler. To check the quality of the installation work, remove the top layer of cement and inspect the liner. In the presence of voids between the sleeve and the tube gap clean from debris as deeply as possible. Wrap the tube soundproofing material and seal the joint cement mortar. Outside cover joint silicone sealant.
The joints between the ceiling and walls
If the old house, cracks can appear between the panels overlap and walls. They are not visible under the wallpaper and do not spoil the interior of the room, but the sound is passed. Cracks should be possible to fill the filler or fluff on top of the acrylic sealant.
How to make 1 day soundproofing the ceiling of the apartment below the suspended ceiling with his hands
If you live in an apartment and an apartment building, the noise from the neighbors can not be avoided. For a comfortable stay in an apartment you need to solve the main task - to get rid of a neighbor's noise from above, because any movement or noise pose the greatest challenge, some choose to soundproof the ceiling in an apartment and what a better sound insulation.
For a comfortable stay in an apartment you need to solve the main task - to get rid of a neighbor's noise from above, because any movement or noise pose the greatest challenge
acoustic quality is poor in any type of house: brick, block, brick, and even monolithic. All houses united by one problem - poor sound insulation between the floors overlap. About the sound insulation of the walls there is a separate large article.
The noise from any source falls on the floor, forcing him, in turn, hesitate and re-emit noise in the underlying apartment. And can not escape from the mechanical action on the interfloor septum.
What is the difference between a material for ceiling insulation?
For everything under the ceiling soundproofing material suitable materials with sound absorption efficiency. Ceiling improvement produced by various methods, for each method of acoustic insulation materials manufacturers have come up with his own version.
But no matter how noise-reducing material may have been good, he must have the following properties:
- soundproof - sound wave is absorbed and reflected. Sound wave does not overlap swings because the material has a decent weight and internal loss.
- sound deadening - absorb sound waves through special channels, then. The material has a fibrous composition, is present in the pores of friction, and which has a function of retarding the sound wave.
For everything under the ceiling soundproofing material suitable materials with sound absorption efficiency.
you need to pay attention to when choosing the material parameters:
- The thickness of the material.
- Sound insulation coefficient.
- Certificate of the absence of substances harmful to the organism.
to the contents ↑
How to select the right material?
The most popular today are considered the following materials:
- mineral wool. Material from raw materials with flame-retardant properties. It does not shrink, it can be purchased in sheets with a thickness of 5 cm.
- mineral boards - suitable material for use as acoustic insulation with wool method is considered the most effective. But in this case, the ceiling will be lower by 15-20 cm so that the increased thickness of the ceiling structure -. Not always a good option, especially if the ceiling height is not happy.
Another shortcoming of wool - a danger to human health. Need a high-quality insulation material does not have a negative impact on a person.
- polyurethane foam. The sound absorptive material has a tight grip, so it can be protected from impact and airborne sound. The material absorbs not only the noise from the neighbors, but also the sounds of your apartment. The downside of polyurethane is its toxicity in case of fire. Therefore, such arrangement soundproofing is considered dangerous.
- self-adhesive sealing tape. This material is made from environmentally friendly raw materials and perfectly retains heat even in the house.
Need a high-quality insulation material does not have a negative impact on a person.
A good option is the use of thermal and acoustic insulation panels made of ecological softwood fiber.
There are alternative materials for sound insulation ceiling. For headliner used, for example, cork, foam sheets. Even with the advent of more modern materials, the love of the tube does not change.
But cork sound insulation is only suitable if your neighbors on top of concrete screed or laminate, and saves only the cork impact sound. children shouting, loud music, barking dogs - will be available for your hearing with cork soundproofing.
3 the most successful method of sound insulation of ceilings in the apartment
Even with good quality and efficiency of sound-absorbing material is paramount design process installation with understanding the physical processes acoustics. For speakers there is no sound insulation - It has soundproof design.
If the wrong design and the material will not be confusing, so you need to choose an effective method of acoustic ceilings and competently approach to installing noise reducing technology framework.
Today sound insulation ceiling can be performed in various ways: via acoustic insulation plates, using a heat-insulating composition, or the suspended structure. Each method has its advantages and disadvantages, and is applicable in a particular case. To achieve the noise reducing effect is necessary to meet the conditions:
- Apply well-mount technology.
- Choose the most effective insulating materials.
- Choose the correct way to mount a sound-proof structure for the ceiling.
If the wrong design and the material will not be confusing, so you need to choose an effective method of acoustic ceilings and competently approach to installing noise reducing technology framework.
The most popular method of insulation ceiling - plasterboard paneling with soundproofing material. For gypsum board is used basalt wool, cork, polyurethane block or coconut fibers. Ceiling construction can be made in three versions:
- Suspended ceiling with a framework of noise insulation panels.
- Podshivnoy plasterboard with a metal frame.
- Suspended ceiling with a film or fabric cover that stretches on special brackets.
Any of these options is set by the scheme: the installation of vibration-isolated design or an independent frame, then any sound-absorbing material, which is sheathed with plasterboard or hiding under the acoustic stretch ceiling.
Walkthrough: Soundproofing ceiling plasterboard
Such a method is popular among people who are planning their own hands acoustic arrangement. Slabs of drywall stacked just building skills at the same time you can not enjoy. Such a method does not require the use of a specific material, a variety of suitable insulating materials are: mineral wool, polyurethane foam blocks, cork, coconut fibers, etc.
Soundproofing a ceiling with his hands is performed as follows:
- To work bought the following tools and materials: Construction scissors, tape measure, level, metal profiles, acrylic sealant, sound-absorbing material, plasterboard and accessories for the construction of the speaker.
- With the construction level is marked on the perimeter walls layout design.
- On the ceiling covering installed special brackets for rack mounting.
- Calculated step between the parts obreshetochnogo web. The size is calculated depending on the number of sheets and the thickness of gypsum board, the type of construction.
- To a ceiling with adhesive adhered membrane.
Slabs of drywall stacked just building skills at the same time you can not enjoy.
Tricks and secrets of sound insulation for ceilings,
Stretch ceiling They give a lot of advantages for the use of any sound-proof materials.
According to experts, the suspended ceiling is effective in sound insulation suspended structure. Acoustics aligned in this case due to the main feature of the stretch ceiling - sound damping in a soft texture. Suspended ceiling serves as a resonator.
Stretch ceiling is effective in homes where builders used a sexual coupler.
Manufacturers are trying to simplify the process and the installation of a stretch ceiling is already possible to buy an acoustic material with a perforated surface. The new fabric has a special pin holes through which noise is effectively neutralized.
Suspended ceiling with a framework of noise insulation slabs
Affordable and popular method is considered to be headlining the mineral wool plates. It is proved that such a material can absorb up to 90% of the noise, and wherein the mounting structure is simple.
Installation of ceiling with mineral wool consists of Fitting special design, wherein the stacked cell soundproofing material. After the frame is clogged with cotton sheathed plasterboard construction. Smooth coating can be dyed, plaster, wallpaper to decorate.
Installation of ceiling you can perform on their own how to do it? Installation Guide is the same as with the acoustic ceilings made of plasterboard:
- It is marked with a place in the frame.
- It is going suspension structure Using slats or suspensions.
- The resulting cells are installed soundproof panels: mineral wool or fiberglass.
- Sound insulation material stitched decorative coating.
Installation of suspended ceiling with mineral wool can be made in another way:
- Set on the ceiling rails for anti-vibration systems.
- Ceiling with defects need a primer surface.
- Use for soundproofing rolled material, pasting it to the surface, followed by further strengthen its hangers.
- After the material is securely fixed, collect profile.
- Fasten profile perimeter mount sheets of drywall, or other material to the carcass structure.
- Decorate ceiling structure: paint, wallpaper paste.
Installation of ceiling you can perform on their own how to do it?
If you are staying on the grid system, it is more logical to use cotton wool and allowed the installation of the foam. Only stick foam can not be, over time it will move away from the ceiling, creating an empty space.
Suspended ceiling design not only protects against noise, but also hides any irregularities, giving the ceiling a very beautiful appearance.
How else can you get results?
One way to solve the problem of sound insulation ceiling - installation of "floating" floor in the apartment above. If you have good relations with neighbors, the simple technology has excellent noise reducing effect.
The floor is covered polyethylene foam in the form of granules, then blanketed technical stopper. The resulting construct is filled with concrete solution, and drying is carried out installation of floor covering.
It is possible to use as a floor insulation substrate roll PE foam base or use compositions based on polymer fibers.
The cost of the ceiling insulation
construction services market offers more and more new products. Many companies can not simply concrete ceiling, and the entire complex noise insulation system where different types of material will be used.
The most inexpensive option sound insulation - installation of a two-tier structure of the ceiling drywall. The cost of works will depend on the method of soundproofing material selection.
Price for sound insulation ceiling "turnkey" will cost 1,500 rubles on average per square meter. If the insulation will need to create a special room, for example, for the construction of the recording studio, the cost of sound insulation work will increase.
The ceiling is the main area of the apartment, through which noise penetrates. The problem of "noise from neighbors from above" can be solved by a partial acoustic method: the assembly of structures soundproof ceiling.
But it is not always insulation of the ceiling will help to get rid of the problem, most likely need to protect the walls and floors of noise and sounds that penetrate into the room from all sides.
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How to whitewash the ceiling and save money on this?
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As the plaster ceiling in the apartment with his hands?
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115054. Moscow, Kosmodamianskaya nab., 52, pp. 11