Scheme reversing magnetic starter
of QF - circuit breaker; KM1 - magnetic actuator; P - thermal relay; M - induction motor; OL - fuse; Control (C-Stop, Start). Consider the operation of the circuit dynamics.
Turn on the power QF - circuit breaker, press the button "Start" to its normally open contact energizes the coil KM1 - magnetic starter.
When triggered, the starter block contact is closed and you can release the "Start" button will run a current through the block to contact KM1 - coil.
When triggered, the thermal relay - "P", opens the normally closed contact "P", the disconnection occurs similarly.
Reversible magnetic switch circuit 220 to the coil.
Reversing and non-reversing starter wiring diagram
Magnetic actuator - a switching device by means of which the distance can be repeatedly enable and disable the user (electric motors, electric heating elements, electric boilers, and so on). Before you understand the subject of the article - the starter wiring diagram, we must understand how it works.
Basically magnetic starters used today for controlling the motors of the asynchronous type. With it, he made the "start", "stop" and the motor reverse. But there is another point, which should not be overlooked. This is an opportunity to unload low-power electrical networks, where established conventional circuit breakers (machines). In order to understand this, it is necessary to give an example.
If the switchboard vending machine 10 amperes nominal value, its throughput power is calculated by Ohm's law: P = UI = 220h10 = 2200 W or 2.2 kW. Essentially, such a machine can withstand light, in which there is twenty-two 100 watt light bulb for each. To increase the power consumption of the electrical chain, for example, two times, it is not necessary to divide it into segments where it is necessary to install several circuit breakers and do a separate installation of electrical wiring. It suffices to establish a magnetic contactor, for example, the third magnitude.
Such a device contacts are rated for 40 amps. Hence, the opportunity to maintain power consumption: 40h220 = 8800 watts or 8.8 kW. That is, connected in series 88 bulbs rated at 100 watts, can be one click to enable or disable them at the same time.
The basis of the magnetic actuator design is an electromagnetic coil. So at the start time (ON), the device consumes 200 watts. The power does not exceed 25W working condition. Even if calculate amperage when starting, the parameters to be minor: 200 W / 220 V = 0.9 amperes. That is, this quantity is sufficient to activate the main device circuit. It turns out that even the smallest magnetic contactor can easily operate the machine. At the same time on the contacts of the last will always be a reduced current, which does not lead to burning. And, then, the circuit breaker will disconnect your contacts big enough power.
Attention! There are several types of magnetic actuators, in which a coil is designed for different voltages. This 220, 380 and 36.
This is a mandatory component of the starter, which will disable the network from overloads and unbalance (when there is no one of the three phases). The reasons for the latter - a great variety.
- Vibration unscrew the screw connection.
- Burnt contact.
- Burnt-insert (fuse) on the phase.
- Poor quality loose contact.
Causes an increase in both create current which passes through the thermal switch. Thus in the device begin to heat the bimetallic plate, which under the action of heat start to bend, opening the contacts in the relays. Last disables the starter, and he, in turn, for example, an electric motor.
So, now we go to the main subject of the article - the starter wiring diagrams. Two of them:
How to connect irreversible circuit. It is standard when connected to a network motor will rotate in the same direction.
In the diagram clearly shows that the start-up of the motor by pressing the button "Start", located on the magnetic contactor KM 1. In order not to hold the button, its shunt with contacts apparatus. That is, when you press the "Start" button, it closes the contacts starter through which current is supplied to the electromagnetic coil device.
Turn off by pressing the button "Stop". In the diagram, the starter it is labeled "C" letter. This button opens a contact. Thus the core under the action of the spring returns to the normal state, the motor is deactivated.
In fact, just working and thermal relays, indicated in the wiring diagram starter with the letter "P".
In fact, this scheme regardless of the value of the starter works similarly to the previous one. Of course, it is more complicated, because it adds another button - Reverse, and one magnetic contactor.
By itself, the reverse - a reconnection phase two places. But here it is necessary to observe a moment - need to get a second starter was not included at this time. That is, it is necessary lock. Under the scheme it is clear that if the two starter will turn on at the same time, there will be a short circuit.
Here the dynamics of the scheme:
- activated automatic QF;
- Press the "Start 1";
- voltage is supplied to the motor, which starts to work.
When the reverse occurs as follows:
- Press the "Stop 1" button, with which the electric motor is carried off from the power supply;
- then press the button "start 2", which energizes the CM 2;
- starts the motor only its rotation is reversed.
Both considered wiring diagrams related to the three-phase consumers. Two-phase systems according to the principle of operation does not differ from them. True, the wiring diagram is easier. Here is the irreversible scheme:
We will not consider here all the parameters of the device, because the choice is made for the value of the starter, which is characterized by a rated current of the load acting on the device contacts. There are seven sizes starter, each of which corresponds to the current load. In the photo below we marked these same values, and the areas in which such magnetic actuators are used.
It should be noted that a small error in the parameters are valid. But in some cases it is necessary to take into account, in which the range of the thermal switch is activated. If starter quantities are overestimated load and the relay indicator understated minimum thermal trip, the discrepancy can be predetermined electric power chain or consumer.
How to connect a reversing magnetic starter
Reversible magnetic starter is used to start the induction motor in two directions rotation- in forward and reverse. On the technical characteristics and how to work the magnetic contactor I recommend that you read our previous article.
Reversing circuit comprises of two identical starter. One of which starts when the motor in one direction and in the opposite second-. In fact as connected as two singles. The only difference is that there will be one common button "stop" and two push buttons "Back" and "Forward". Also apply an additional lock: electrical and mechanical, in order to avoid a short circuit or an emergency, while the inclusion of two starters.
Why are there faults? In order to change the rotation of an asynchronous electric motor is reversed, the two phases must be inverted. For example, the first starter phases are connected in rotation "A" - "B" - "C", then the second which would change the direction of rotation, it is necessary to connect in rotation "C" - "B" - "A" or "B" - "A" - "C" or "A" - "C" - "B". Replacement of two phases and is engaged in a second starter in the circuit. So while you turn off two will interfacial short-circuiting. To avoid this, use the constantly closed contacts when the magnetic switch is a gap control or the second electrical interlock circuit. But there are also mechanical. The essence of it is that when the second one puskatelya- using mechanical devices is blocked.
If you've never connected a starter, I recommend to collect the scheme once consisting of one that would understand the principles of operation, and then will be much easier to collect the reverse. Memorable install a thermal relay on phase extending to the motor to protect it. I recommend to read our article "The scheme of connecting the starter and teplorele".
The simpler way, purchasing assembly into a metal or plastic housing assembled reversing starter with buttons. You will only need to connect power supply wires to the heat and rele- cable to the electric motor.
Scheme reversing magnetic starter
Collect simple scheme It will own the majority of people. The only thing you have to consider that the mechanical lock with your own hands is not necessary to do- device prefabrication. The principle is fairly and properly assembled electric lock.
We begin with a description considered circuit power part. On the machine comes heteronymic three phases. Yellow "A" green "B" and the red "C". Next, they go to the power contacts of the two contactors with the designation KM1 and KM2. On the other hand made jumpers 3 between the central green phases, and between yellow and red in the first on the second, and between the red on the first and second yellow.
Further phase go to the motor through a thermal relay, which controls the current to flow only in 2 phases. The third control is not necessary, because all three phases are closely interrelated. Simply put, the current growth in one is the same thing in another. If the current consumption of the motor will increase safety margins going open circuit supply both coils at once.
The control circuit It performs the function of on-off power contacts KM1 and KM2. It consists of buttons, auxiliary contacts and coil, which when applied to the voltage it pulls anchor, make contact. When it is switched off or opens KM1 KM2 under the action of the return spring.
The described circuit with the coil 380 volts, which is supplied by two different phases. If the coil specified operating voltage of 220 volts, then use to connect any one phase and neutral.
In this case, one green phase through contact thermal switch goes directly to first contacts of both coils.
another phase on the second contact is through a common "Stop" button. And then made a jumper to ever open contacts buttons "Forward" and "Back". From there to the respective actuators are connected to the wire open contacts off sostoyanii- KM 1.3 and KM 2.3. A second side of the block contacts the wires respectively connected to the second contacts starting buttons.
But in order that there would be an electric lock, you must lead from the start-up button to the coil is not directly connected, but through the ever-closed contacts of another starter.
at startup permanently open are closed, and vice versa is constantly stocked open. Previously, all the auxiliary contacts have been made on the side of the starter. Today, for the ever-used open a fourth near the 3 main contacts. And to constantly closed, a special set-top box on top of the power. EXAMPLE picture.
When you click "Next" button triggered coil and includes power contacts. At the same time there is shunting start button permanently open contacts starter KM 1.3, so that when the button is released, the power to the coil is supplied by bypass.
After switching on the first starter opens contacts KM 1.2, which cuts off the coil K2. As a result, when you press the "Back" button, nothing happens.
In order to start the engine in the opposite direction it is necessary to press "Stop" and de-energize the K1. All auxiliary contacts back in the opposite position, then you can turn the motor in the opposite direction. Similarly, while K2 is switched on and off unit contacts another possibility of including the starter coil K1.
K2 includes power contacts KM2 and KM1 K1-.
The button for the connection of the actuator must be laid five core cable.
And how to make inclusion work lights display Engine "included forward" or included ago.
To connect the display mode you must have an additional neutral wire, which will be connected to the control 2 lights on the display switching 220V Engine "Enabled forward" or "Enabled ago." Other end with 2 light bulbs you must have 2 push buttons to contact those who are not connected with a jumper stopovskoy button.
Hi how the reversing electromagnetic actuator in the beam crane, the remote leaves only 5 wires. Button on the remote control 4 forward, backward, up, down. Help is very necessary, but it is not understood.
Good evening! The crane boom in Scheme offline stop button. So it goes to the control phase or beggars, and departs with the four buttons on one wire directly to the second contact coils. Button is pressed lifting motor or a rolling work. Do not forget about the mechanical and electrical lock that would not be a phase two korotkogo- starter should not be involved in any case with one motor.
Thank you! Helped to sensibly deal.
Hello! And why on stopovskoy button, like on the launcher has 2 pairs of contacts is constantly closed and open.
Good evening! For versatility to a single button could be used to start and stop. And the color of the buttons, you can easily change the permutation of colored patches.
And the same for some control schemes, which is required to operate both pairs of contacts. In practice, almost does not occur.
How to turn on the starter 4 4 kknopkami on me, and 1 stop with blocking between them
Max, hello. To take and connect. You write to me first what you want to do, and then I'll be able to help. And while such a response only. All coils through button is phase (and then to self-retaining on the contactor) and the stop button breaks zero.
For the competition should be 4knopki option switches to ON when the other one did not include a stop off only after
It is clear answer about 15.00 Moscow
Max, if I understand correctly, then you need to make sure that each button turns on the pickup (ie, pressed, contactor on and never turned off until you press Stop), and the rest did not respond to pressing at this time. If done with the help of actuators, it is necessary to add additional terminals are normally closed. The scheme will look like this:
There is a wiring diagram of only one starter. The thing is that any contactor breaks the circuit button three other starters. Consequently, while the starter is turned off, the other buttons are blocked. If all are off, it can be active at any button. Well, the second wire leading to the coil, it is self-retaining, which is going to normally open contacts starter. When the starter draws the core, the contact is closed and no longer need to hold the key to the coil remains energized.
Good afternoon! Help Board! The motor is connected through a reversing starter explodes power cable when voltage is applied. Everything is new, no short, simple head broke already own, the whole scheme to reverse correct 10 times rechecked all
Vitaly, hello. Just as nothing can be. First, check not only the correctness of the scheme, but there is a gap in the starters. It may be a situation that stuck any contact on one of the starters. Rang all contacts. All power terminals, at least in the off state must be open. Disconnect the motor from the starters, after checking the contacts and try to switch. If I understand you correctly, the short occurs immediately when voltage is applied, is triggered if at least some starters in this case? If so, then I guess that's because of the closed contactor on the second starter is short-circuited. If again, the contacts are open, but there is closure. Try to disable all incoming cable and apply voltage to it. If everything is in order, reconnect the cable, but on the starters, remove the jumper and try to switch. Then try to install the jumper without the reverse, that is, each bridge is on one and the same contact, as it were, repeats the scheme of the first starter. If the circuit is not, it means the problem accurately in some of the contacts. Then describe.
Hello. You might not be in the photo display which which wires go to PM12-010600 UHL4 B (380V 10A). I know where the contacts of the key and the engine
Ruslan, expand your question. What kind of wire you need to connect to the contactor. And what exactly you do not understand.