- 1 Driving photo- and connection rules
- 2 Improving lighting system using the photoelectric circuit with his own hands
- 3 Photo- own hands
Driving photo- and connection rules
Automate supply lighting in the apartment, in the house or on the street is achieved through the use of a light barrier. When properly configured, it will turn on the lights when it gets dark and off during daylight. Modern devices comprise settings, due to which the operation can be set according to the brightness. They are an integral part of the system of "smart house", taking on a significant part of the duties of owners. Scheme photoelectric primarily comprises a resistor that changes resistance when exposed to light. It is easy to assemble and customize their own hands.
Wiring diagram for the photoelectric sensor includes street lighting, power and actuator. PR1 photoconductor by light changes resistance. This changes the magnitude of passing an electric current therethrough. The signal is amplified composite transistor VT1, VT2 (Darlington circuit) and thence supplied to an actuator which is an electromagnetic relay K1.
In the dark resistance of the photosensor is a few milliohms. Under the effect of light is reduced to a few ohms. This opens transistor VT1, VT2, comprising the relay K1, the load control circuit via contact K1.1. VD1 diode current does not pass the self-inductance of relay.
Despite its simplicity, photoelectric circuit has a high sensitivity. To put it to the desired level, using a resistor R1.
Power supply is selected on the relay settings and is 5-15 V. winding current is 50 mA. If you want to increase it, you can apply more power transistors and relays. The sensitivity of the light barrier increases with the supply voltage.
Instead of photoresist can be set photodiode. If necessary sensor with increased sensitivity circuit used with phototransistors. Their use is advisable in order to save electricity, as the minimum limit of a conventional actuation device is 5 Lx, when nearby objects are still visible. Threshold 2 corresponds to lx deep dusk, after which occurs after 10 minutes the dark.
Photo- advisable to apply even when the manual light control, because you can forget to turn off the lights, and the sensor own "take care" of it. It is easy to install, and the price is quite accessible.
Choosing a light barrier it is determined by the following factors:
- the sensitivity of the photocell;
- supply voltage;
- switching capacity;
- external environment.
Sensitivity is characterized as the ratio of generated photocurrent to the magnitude of external light flux and is measured in uA / lm. It depends on the frequency (spectral) and light intensity (integral). To control lighting in everyday life latter characteristic is important, depending on total luminous flux.
The rated voltage can be found on the device or in the accompanying document. Devices foreign production may have different voltage standards.
The power of lamps, which is connected to a light barrier, depends on the load on his contacts. photoelectric lighting scheme may involve direct switching of lamps through contacts of the sensor or the actuators when the load is large.
Outdoor twilight switch placed under the sealed transparent cover. It is protected from moisture and precipitation. When operating in a cold period of heating is applied.
Previously, the scheme photoelectric going their own hands. Now this is not necessary, as the devices have become cheaper, and expanded functionality. They are used not only for internal or external lighting, but also for the control of irrigation, ventilation system and others.
Models of prefabrication are widely used in automation devices, for example, to control street lighting. You can often see lights burning during the day, which forgot to turn off. In the presence of photocells no need for manual light control.
Scheme photoelectric fr-2 industrial manufacturing is used for automatic control of street lighting. There is also a switching device is a relay K1. To the base of the transistor VT1 connected photoresistor CSF G1 with resistors R4 and R5.
Powered by a single-phase 220 V. When the illuminance is small, the resistance CSF G1 is large and on the basis of the signal VT1 is insufficient for its opening. Accordingly closed and transistor VT2. The relay K1 is turned on, and its working contacts are closed, supporting the illumination lamp burning.
When illuminance increases to a threshold response, reduced resistance of the photoresistor and opens the transistor switch, and then turns off the relay K1, opening the circuit power lamps.
The choice of models is large enough to be able to choose the right:
- with remote sensor located outside the product's enclosure, which summed up the 2 wires;
- Suite 2 - a device with high reliability and quality level;
- photoelectric with 12 V and a load not higher than 10 A;
- module with timer, mounted on DIN rail;
- IEK device domestic manufacturer with high quality and functionality;
- AZ 112 - machine with high sensitivity;
- ABB, LPX - reliable producers of European quality devices.
Prior to the acquisition sensor to count the power consumption of the lamps and take stock of 20%. When large load street photoelectric scheme provides additional installation of the electromagnetic contactor, the winding of which should be included through photoelectric contacts, power contacts and the switch load.
Housing this method is rarely used.
Before installing the power supply voltage is checked
220 V. The connection is made by the circuit breaker. The photosensor is positioned so that light from the light falling on it.
The instrument used terminals for wiring, making installation easier. If they are not available, use junction box.
Through the application of microprocessors photoelectric wiring diagram with other elements acquired new functions. The sequence of actions made by the timer and motion sensor.
Conveniently, when the lights are automatically turned on when passing human landing or garden path. Moreover, activation occurs only at night. Through the application of photoelectric timer does not respond to the headlights of passing cars.
Easy connection timer circuit with a motion sensor - serial. For expensive models special programmable circuits are designed taking into account the different operating conditions.
Photo- for street lighting
To connect the photoelectric circuit is applied to the casing. It can be found in the documentation for the device.
From the instrument out three wires.
- Zero conductor - common to lamps and light barrier (red).
- Phase - connected to the device input (brown).
- A potential conductor for applying a voltage from the light barrier to light (blue).
The device works on the principle of interruption or inclusion phase. Color coding for different manufacturers may differ. If there is a conductor of "land" on the network, to the device it is not connected.
In models with integrated sensor which is located inside a transparent housing, street lighting operation is autonomous. To it is necessary only to bring food.
Variants with the removal of the sensor used in the case where the electronic stuffing light barrier which is located in the control room with other devices. Then there is no need for a stand-alone installation, pulling power wiring and maintenance at height. The electronic unit is placed inside the room, and the sensor is taken out to the outside.
Features a light barrier for street lighting: the scheme
When you install a light barrier on the street have to take into account some factors.
- The presence of the supply voltage
220 and corresponds to the power contacts and load.
Wiring is done via a junction box for the street. It is secured next to a light barrier.
- The adjustability allows the threshold depending on the time adjustment, the sensitivity of the sensor or in cloudy weather. The result is power savings.
- A minimum of labor required for installation with integrated photoelectric sensor. It does not require special skills.
- Relay Timer is well programmed to their needs and work at a steady state. You can configure the device to turn off at night. Indication on the unit and push-button controls make it easy to make adjustments.
The use of a light barrier can automatically control the activation period lamps. Now it is no longer necessary in the lamplighter profession. Driving light barrier without human intervention in the evening light lights on the streets and off it in the morning. The device can control the lighting system, which increases its service life and makes operation easier.
Improving lighting system using the photoelectric circuit with his own hands
Technological progress makes people's lives more comfortable. To do this, they invent new devices that perform actions without the presence and participation of the people.
One such device is easy photorelay. Such a device can be purchased in the store, but more interesting and more economical to do it with his own hands.
Where you can use the device with autoregulation of the world?
Photo- can be used to turn on or off the light at different times of the day. For example, when it is dark the device switches on the light, and at dawn - disables. It can also be used in the stairwell of an apartment building or on your country site.
Widely known to use LED lamp with a light barrier, which includes offline and off lighting. Such a device can be used in the "intelligent building". At the same time using a light barrier can not only control the lighting, but also to open the blinds or ventilate the room. It should be noted and the possibility of installing this device for home security systems.
To understand the scheme of simple photoelectric their own hands
The simplest photoelectric circuit consists of two transistors, photoresistor, relay, diode, and a variable resistor. As used KT315B type transistor devices included on the composite transistor circuit, to a load which is a relay coil. Such a scheme has a high gain and high input impedance, which allows to include therein photoresistor with high resistance.
By increasing the illumination of the photoresistor, connected between the collector and base of the first transistor, this transistor going opening and №2 transistor. As a result of the emergence of the current in the collector circuit of the second transistor will switch operation, which your contacts, depending on the setting on or off load.
To protect circuitry from exposure to self-induced EMF at shutdown relay protection diode included KD522. For sensitivity adjustment circuit between the base and emitter of the first transistor includes a variable denominated transistor 10k.
Machines installed in a cabinet for electrical network protection against overload and fault - this is the principle of the circuit breakers.
Food such photoelectric can be supplied from the DC voltage source is 5 - 15 V. In this case, at a voltage of 6 volts to the source relay type used REF REF 9 or 47, and at a supply voltage of 12 V REF used relay 15 or distribution zone 49.
You can create a special fee for the installation of the circuit, with the possibility - printed. Then strengthen the board relays, transistors, a variable resistor, to make holes for the pins and the circuit elements to produce corresponding compounds with mounting and soldering the wires.
A method of assembling at the present instrument
If you are using more sophisticated electronic devices can be assembled homemade light barrier, which includes all three components. Such a scheme can be assembled on an integrated semiconductor device companies TeccorElectronics Q6004LT (kvadrak), which is a triac with a built dinistorov. Such a device has an operating current of 4 A and working voltage of 600 V.
Scheme photoelectric connection consists of a device Q6004LT, photoresist and conventional resistor. Power supply circuit 220 is provided from the network B. In the presence of the photoresistor light has a low resistance (several ohms) and to the control electrode kvadraka present a very low voltage. Kvadrak closed and through its load, as which may be used in lamp, no current flows.
For the scheme used resistor settings. The initial value of its resistance is 47 ohms. The resistance value is selected depending on the desired threshold and the type of illumination of the photoresistor. type photoresist is not critical. For example, as a photoresist SF3-1 type elements may be used, CSF or CSF-7 G1.
Modern power supply system provides a three-wire grounding wiring in a private home or apartment. In view of such conditions is established and the socket.
Using a powerful instrument Q6004LT can connect to photoelectric load power of 500 W, and when using this additional heat sink capacity can be increased to 750 watts. To further increase the load capacity can be used photoelectric kvadrak with operating currents of 6, 8, 10 or 15 A.
- In various automatic control systems, often in the lighting systems used light barrier.
- There are many different schemes photoelectric using as photoconductive sensors, photodiodes and phototransistors.
- The simplest photoelectric schemes which contain a minimum of parts, can be assembled by hand.
Video example of an improvised assembly photo-
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Photo- own hands
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- Photo- Day-night with his own hands
Photo- Day-night with his own hands
It works like this: when the light from the LED falls on the photo diode, the transistor opens and lights up the LED-2. Regulated trimmer device sensitivity. As the photodiode can be applied on the photodiode of the old ball mouse. LED - any infrared LED. The use of an infrared LED and photodiode to avoid interference from visible light. As an LED-2 can use any LED or a string of several LEDs. Can be applied to the incandescent lamp. And if, instead of the LED supply electromagnetic relay, it can be controlled by powerful incandescent lamps, or some kind of mechanisms.
Figures provided both circuit pinout (legs location) transistor and LEDs, as well as wiring diagram.
In the absence of the photodiode, you can take an old transistor MP39 and MP42, and cut down his body in front of the collector, like so:
Instead of the photodiode in the scheme will need to include p-n junction of the transistor. Which will work best - you have to be determined experimentally.
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