Orchis red book Russia


Orchis (Orchis) - a perennial herb of the family Orchidaceae. It is called the forest Violet. This is a small plant with dugonervnymi listyavi covering a single flower arrow. We spotted orchids leaves are covered with dark spots. Underground tuber from these plants oval or paddle. Thin unbranched type inflorescence stem ear end, wherein the size of each flower for each strictly constant and is determined by the dimensions of bull-pollinating insect. Flower in the inflorescence has three leaflets and three upper inner petals, the lower of which different size and color, forms a wide lip, provided with a spur. On lilac-white petals of perianth are like the tracks of red spots. It blooms from late May to July. This type of orchid is still found in open forests and on the lawns of the European part of Russia. Take care of it! The figure from left to right: Spotted Orchis (O. maculata L.), a blood-red orchids (Incarnata L. O.), orchis helmet (militaris L. O.).

"Insects Red Book" - A large beautiful butterfly. Zubchatogrudy woodcutter. Dragonfly flat. The only representative of the Sino-Himalayan fauna of the subgenus in Russia. Beetle length of 31-61 mm. Bumblebee. Beetle length of 15-27 mm. Externally similar to the honey bee. Endangered species. The only representative of the genus in the fauna of Russia. Dragonfly flat belongs to the family of these dragonfly. Rosalia longicorn. Unlike Moths.

"Introduction to the Red Book," - they need to be protected. Through the pages of the Red Book. Judge in action guys. Puzzles. Biology and literature. Crossword. Rules of behavior in nature. purpose of the lesson. Snowdrop. Protected by the Red Books of many rare animals and birds. Protect the Earth.

"Animals of the Red Book of Russia" - Black stork. Definition. Bursch. The conservation status. Ante. Volga pikeperch. Borshi stick packs. Animals Russian Red Book. Muskrat. Gray seal. A bird of the family stork. The Red Book of Russia. Hook-nosed seal. Number.

"Description of the Red Book of Russia" - rules of behavior in nature. Animals and plants that are no longer on Earth. Snow Leopard. Cuban crocodile. Caucasian cat. The Red Book of Russia. Red color. Animals and plants, the number of which has always been small. Tree, grass and the bird does not always know how to protect themselves. Tulip Schrenk. Jeyran. In our country, the Red book was published for the first time in 1978. Animals and plants, whose number is rapidly declining.

"Red Book" - Rare and Endangered Plants of Siberia. Number. The history of the Red Book. The Red Book of the Russian Federation. Lesser Kestrel. Criteria. Systematic groups of the Red Book. The degree of development. Keeping Red Book. Information and bibliographic resources. Red Book. Categories. The decision on the establishment of the Red Book of the RSFSR. The role of the Red Book. Taxa and populations. Presentation of the Red Book of plants and fungi.

"Insects of the Red Book of Russia" - a rare insect in need of protection. Krasotel actively destroys the larvae of forest pests, cleaning forests and gardens. Apollo. No, that's not the birds and carnivorous animals, which are also not touch the Apollo. Major social insect, densely covered with hairs. Perelivnitsa large. Stag beetle. Red Book. Bumblebees feed on nectar and are excellent pollinators. Extraction of ground beetles, caterpillars, snails, slugs.

All in the "Red Book" 19 presentations

Orchis militaris

Orchis militaris L.

Category and status: 3 b, d - a rare species.

A brief description of. Herbaceous perennial 15-45 cm high., With a large egg-shaped solid, are replaced annually underground tubers with light green 4-6, elliptical leaves, close together at the base of the stem. Blossoms in April-May, fruiting in June. Reproduction preferably seed.

Spread. In Russia, the range of the species stretches across the country from the western border to the Trans-Baikal. Species is found in the Belgorod, Bryansk, Vladimir, Volgograd, Voronezh, Irkutsk, Kaluga, Kemerovo, Kirov, Kostroma, Kurgan, Kursk, Leningrad, Lipetsk, Moscow, Nizhny Novgorod, Novgorod, Novosibirsk, Omsk, Orenburg, Orel, Penza, Pskov , Ryazan, Samara, Saratov in the west, in the Sverdlovsk, Smolensk, Tambov, Tver, Tyumen, Tomsk, Tula, Ulyanovsk and Chelyabinsk and Yaroslavl region., in the Republic of Altai, Bashkortostan, Buryatia, Mari El, Mord Vija, Udmurtia, Tatarstan, Tuva, and Chuvashia, Khakassia, the Khanty-Mansi Autonomous District, Altai, Zabaykalkom, Krasnoyarsk and Perm regions. Number of island localities known in Arkhangelsk and Vologda obl., South Ural, Republic of South Saha (Iakutiia) (1,2). A smaller part of the species range in Russia includes the Greater Caucasus and covers the Krasnodar and Stavropol Territory, Republic: Adygeya, Kabardino-Balkaria, Karachay-Cherkessia, North Ossetia-Alania, Chechnya, Ingushetia and Dagestan. Outside Russia, the species range covers Europe, Asia Minor, Iran, Mongolia and Northwest China (3-5). Isolated location there are in northern Kazakhstan (2).

Features of ecology and phytocenology. Grows on damp or dry meadows, forests light, forest clearings and among bushes at meadow mountain slopes up to a height of 2200 m n. ur. m. Type tends to be calcareous soils.

Number. It occurs sporadically in small groups.

Status of local populations. Population of the species in the surroundings. St. Petersburg became extinct in the early 20th century (b). A number of localities in European Russia to be confirmed (7). Population in the Caucasus tend to degradation.

Limiting factors. Land reclamation, grazing, plowing, increasing recreational pressure. Decorative and medicinal plant suffers from gathering.

Adopted security measures. He was listed in the Red Book of the USSR (1978.1984) and the RSFSR (1988). Species included in the Red Book and is protected in most of the subjects of the federation, where it grows. Protected in 13 nature reserves Russia (8), as well as in the Oka Reserve Terras (9). Species included in Appendix II of CITES International Convention.

The necessary security measures. Identification of species populations and the organization of their protection. The prohibition of harvesting plants.

The possibility of cultivation. Successfully grown in botanical gardens of Russia 4 (10). In culture, according to some sources (11,12), is developing normally and flowers, on the other - with the long-term cultivation falls. Advantageously, by administration to the culture of seed propagation.

Information sources. 1. Peshkov 1&79; 2. Areas of medicaments. 1&83; 3. Neva, 1&35; 4. Meusel et aL, 1&65; 5. Soo, 1&80; 6. Red Data Book of Nature of the Leningrad Region, 2000; 7. Aver'yanov, 2000; 8. Current status of 2003; . 9. Alekseev et al, 2005; 10. Plants of the Red Book. 2005; 11. Luque, 1&61; 12. JB Markovski, personal communication. Compiled by L. Averyanov.

Orchis (Orhis, North orchid)

Family: orchid (Orchidaceae).

Orchids distributed in temperate and subtropical climates of the Northern Hemisphere. Most often it can be found in Central and Southern Europe, as well as in Asia. Some species of orchids grow on the North American continent.

The form: tuberous perennial herb

Orchis, aka Orhis or Siberian orchid - genus of herbaceous perennials of the family oridnyh. In the world there primerno100 kinds of orchids, some forty of them grow on the territory of Russia. Some species of orchids are listed in the Red Book of Russia and Ukraine.

The plant has tuberous roots (salep), collected in the rosette leaves lanceolate, straight stem and spike-like inflorescences. Flowers orchids are very decorative, depending on the type, they can have any shades of white, cream and pale pink to dark purple and violet, many members of the genus peculiar mottled coloring. Orchids bloom from April to August. Species living in warm regions, in the hottest time of summer, fall into a state of rest, then begin to bloom again.

Some species orhisov demanding composition of the soil and give preference to particular kinds of soils, others are so undemanding that they feel comfortable even on railway embankments and non-toxic dumps rocks. Most orchids prefer well-lit places or polupritenonnye - edge of the forest, woodlands, meadows. Being patient's samples, they avoid the proximity of the dominant plant species. In the event that the competition can not be avoided, orchids make room for the dominant, leaving himself more comfortable areas.

The popular name of the plant - "cuckoo slozki" - does not identify the genus yatryshnikovyh as such, it is worn and other plants, incl do not belong to the family of orchids...

We present the most common and some unique species of orchids:

Orchis fashioned, or Orchis chelovekonosny, Atseras chelovekonosny (O. anthropophora) - herbaceous plant height 20 - 35 cm. Direct spike reaching 60 cm thick strewn with flowers yellow-green or greenish-brown shades with violet-brown edges. For four years the plant leads an underground life, only in the fifth year is shown above the ground. Blossoms in June, after flowering it aboveground part dies.

Orchis male (O. mascula) - herbaceous perennial, steam (and replaceable replacement) which tubers are ovoid or spherical shape. Lanceolate leaves and on the bottom part of the stem are tomno- violet or purple spots. Kolosovidnoe inflorescence cylindrical shape composed of a plurality of pale purple or violet color. Flowering period June - July. Listed in the Red Book of Russia, as well as a number of countries in Europe and the Caucasus.

Orchis militaris (O. militaris). Inflorescence - orchis ear of this type in early bloom has a pyramidal, later - a cylindrical shape. On it densely arranged flowers are pink, magenta, purple or brownish-purple shades with Five-perianth, resembling a helmet. Decorative, blooms in May and June.

Orchis pale (O. pallens). A few pale-yellow or greenish-yellow flowers of orchids representative thickly strewn upper part of the stem of the plant, forming a small cylindrical spike. Broadly leaves have smooth green color. Orchis pale height 10 to 35 cm, flowering period - April and May.

Orchis Punctate (O. punctulata) very decorative. Its bright yellow or greenish-yellow flowers with dark patches form a beautiful, slightly sparse cylindrical inflorescence. Flowering plants have a rich vanilla flavor. Bloom Orchis Punctate in April-June, fruiting in July. When the seed breeding method needs special symbiosis with soil fungi. In the Red Book of Russia belongs to the third category (rare species).

purple orchids (O. purpurea) -. One of the most important representatives of yatryshnikovyh, plant height can reach 80 cm it approaches lanceolate or elliptic leaves have a uniform green color. Large, vanilla-smelling flowers are collected in spike inflorescence. Perianths dark form helmet on bright, pinkish or white flowers with purple mottling. Flowering period - April to May. Listed in the Red Data Books of a number of states.

orchis simian (O. simia) - moderate, up to 45 cm, herbaceous perennial. A few white or pinkish flowers with small purple flecks form a thick short spike. Flowering in April-May. Listed in the third category of the Russian Red Book (a rare species).

orchis spitzelii (O. spitzelii) - undersized up to 30 cm, the view yatryshnikovyh. Spike inflorescence consists of a small number of flowers, the green in the center and purple or red towards the edges with brown mottling. Flowering period: May - June. Included in the Red Book of Switzerland and Germany.

Orchis marsh (O. palustris) reaches a height of 75 cm. Lanceolate leaves sticking up plants collected in the rosette. Inflorescence consists of widely spaced purple-violet color. The majority of orchids is different in that prefers soaked with water, poorly aerated, putrid peat or alkaline soils. Flowering in May-June. Made to the Russian and Ukrainian Red Book.

Orchis Morio (O. morio) is found in the Baltic States, Scandinavia, in mountainous areas of Ukraine and Moldova. Inflorescence - low (10-15 cm) rare ear containing 5-8 violet-purple flowers. It prefers slightly acidic or neutral soils and well-lit areas, has low hydration. Within two years after planting leads an underground life. Flowering period May-June. Listed in the Red Book of a number of European countries.

Orchis Caspian (O. caspia) Habitat yatryshnikovyh this species is limited and south eastern regions of the South Caucasus, Dagestan and Iran. This is a low, up to 30 cm, the plant with linearly lanceolate leaves and spike inflorescence composed of sparsely spaced dark purple flowers. Flowering period April-May.

anacamptis coriophora (O. soriorhora) got its name thanks to allocate at flowering wood specific smell of bedbugs. He prefers humus-rich, well-moistened soil alkaline and highlights. Elongated cylindrical inflorescence includes densely arranged purplish brown flowers. Flowering period May-June. Included in the Red Book of Russia and Ukraine.

Orchis greatest (O. maxima) is one of the largest species yatryshnikovyh is like purple orchids. It occurs in the Caucasus, the Caucasus, Dagestan, in the mountain forests of south-eastern coast of the Black Sea. Very decorative due to the large size and collected into a thick ear of white or pinkish flowers with purple mottling and purple-purple bracts.

fragrant orchids (O. fragrans) is found in the Caucasus, in some regions of Ukraine, the Mediterranean, Atlantic Europe, Asia Minor and Iran. He loves well moistened soil. The height reaches 30-50 cm. Spotted purple flowers with vanilla aroma collected in kolosovidnoe inflorescence. Flowering in May. Listed in the Red Book of Ukraine.

Orchis Farm (O. provincialis) successfully grows in very dry, fine sand, well-aerated soil alkaline, prefers light or lightly shaded location. Large, but a few pale-yellow or white flowers are collected in spike inflorescence. Flowering period April-May. It reproduces both by seeds and vegetatively. a locus to be protected orchids olive listed in the Red Book of Russia and Ukraine.

Orchis Fedchenko (O. fedtschenkoi) occurs only in Turkmenistan, on the slopes of the Kopetdag mountain slopes. Growing among rocks, in crevices of rocks. A few purple flowers make a pretty thick ear. During flowering and fruiting - April-May. Unique view, listed in the Red Data Book of Turkmenistan.

Orchis Shelkovnikova (O. punctulata schelkownikowi) grows only in the Caucasus, as well as Ante and some regions of the Caucasus. The height reaches 80 cm Inflorescence -. Thick spike, consisting of multiple (50 to 100) flowers with a strong vanilla flavor. Flowering in April-May. This type listed in the Red Book of Armenia.

The result obtained by interbreeding many natural hybrids orchids.

Most species of orchids prefer well-lit areas or partial shade, but there are, however, and its shade-loving species (Orchis militaris). Orchids that grow in temperate climates, not demanding temperature conditions, winter-hardy. Species living in the Caucasus and Crimean (orchis magenta, orchis simian) thermophilic.

Many species of orchids choose good, but not excessively, moist areas with loose soil, others (marsh orchids) grow on the viscous, water-soaked soil. Requirements orchids to the composition of the soil depends on the type of plants, most of them prefer calcareous soil, like other types of alkaline soils, others are more willing to grow on land rich in minerals. Some species of orchids thrive on poor soils.

Orchids - the perfect plant for the processing of semi-wild garden plots. Forms, undemanding to the composition of the soil, could become a spectacular rock garden decoration. The orchis mixed beds are used rarely - a plant is generally inferior to easily place the dominant type of vegetation, with the exception of mono-beds.

Tubers orchids used in folk medicine for the treatment of diseases of the airways and digestive tract.

In the care of orchids almost does not need, only plants that were planted in open areas, you may need moderate but regular watering. Error care becomes compost fertilizer orchids - change soil acidity can lead to death of plants.

Orchis can reproduce by seeds, including self-seeding. This method of complexity; the fact that the plant seeds only germinate in symbiosis with a fungus of a certain type, so a huge number of units only sprout seeds.

Another way, vegetative, assumes office and otsazhivanie one tuber. Separating the first klubnekoren recommended during budding, then 2-3 week intervals otsazhivayut substituent tubers.

Orchids are extremely resistant to diseases and pests.

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