- 1 Japanese bonsai tree
- 2 Small Japanese trees: the art of growing bonsai
- 3 Bonsai - a tree on a tray: particular care and cultivation in the home
Japanese bonsai tree
Japan is because art has come to us from this sunny country. With the Japanese name it means "tree in a bowl." Small bonsai trees, usually with the growth of no more than 1 meter, faithfully replicate the appearance of adult trees growing in the wild.
Sometimes, to create a more realistic picture added thereto moss, stones and other decorative elements. Thus, it is possible to repeat a miniature piece of the natural landscape.
History of Japanese bonsai tree
It is known that initially more than 2000 years ago, the art of bonsai originated in China under the name Pentszyn, and only in the 6th century was transferred to Japan. About a hundred years ago, art has become incredibly popular in Japan, and from there came to us and spread throughout the world.
In bonsai practice using many kinds of trees, both coniferous and deciduous and flowering. You can use pine, spruce, larch, juniper, cypress, ginkgo, beech, hornbeam, linden, maple, cotoneaster, birch, zelkova, cherry, plum, apple, rhododendron.
Bad indoors feel various kinds of small-leaved ficus, Carmona, garnet, murraya, sageretsiya, olive, Lagerstroemia, fuchsia, myrtle, rosemary, boxwood, psidium, leaved Chinese elm, small-fruited citrus (lemon, kinkala, Calamondin).
The living bonsai tree can be grown from seed or from seedlings ready. There is also a so-called method fupazhirovki bonsai when you find a plant in the wild, transplant it into a container and then grow and are building.
The first method is the most complex and time-consuming. Yet it was he who brings the greatest pleasure, as you can from the beginning to nurture and build your tree. Depending on the plant species, its establishment and up to the time of the first imaging crop can take up to 5 years.
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Small Japanese trees: the art of growing bonsai
House plants - it's not just flowers and palm trees too small Japanese won the love of many gardeners and settled at home. Growing Bonsai - a complex but fascinating science which has a lot of subtleties and nuances. Sometimes there is a feeling that it is so difficult, and to achieve the desired result is almost impossible. But the cultivation of small Japanese tree - is, above all, the process by which you want to have fun.
To grow bonsai at home, you need to understand their varieties, as well as to understand what conditions must be created for a small tree house. In any case, it will be an interesting experience that will bring pleasure in the process of growing a tree, and the result will delight in the form of a strong and beautiful plants. Bonsai - this introduction to the wildlife in the home.
Despite the fact that bonsai is considered the birthplace of Japan, in fact, growing miniature trees art originated in China several centuries before our era. This is evidenced by the drawings found at the end of the last century, where technology bonsai cultivation is described in detail. These images historians date back to the reign of the Chinese Tang dynasty.
Literally "is the bonsai of" in Japanese language means "tree that grows on a platter." Initially engaged in the art of their cultivation, Buddhist monks, who have always appreciated calm, measured, absorption in themselves and the natural world. However, not only in Asia has been popular bonsai, historians and archaeologists have found evidence that ancient Egyptians also knew how to grow small plants in small containers.
In the late 20 - early 21 th century bonsai spreading to Europe and wins the hearts of many amateur gardeners. Miniature trees conquered its accuracy and beauty, allowing you to plunge into the process of courtship and beautiful contemplation. To grow bonsai at home is not easy, but the result is worth the effort.
Japanese species of small trees
The centuries-old history of bonsai has led to the fact that small trees are of various kinds in their shape, size and name. To date, displayed more than ten different types of bonsai, each of which is unique and beautiful in its own way. It is difficult to say which one is easier to grow, and what - is more complicated. Choosing a Japanese tree, it is better to focus on inner feelings and attraction to a particular type. Something that is the soul, will grow, enjoying the process and enjoying the beauty of contemplation miniature.
The most popular types of bonsai:
One of the most common and popular types of Japanese small trees. This style is characterized by straight trunk of the tree, with broad leaves at the base of the crown, which is the apex becomes narrower and smaller. A symbol of the tree is an inner strength, a die-hard rod.
A small tree with exactly growing, but tilted toward the trunk is called shakai. This style can be grown virtually any tree, but in the process of caring for them will have to show dexterity and skill. Symbol of growing in the side of the tree is the flexibility and the ability to resist the winds.
A tree in this fashion increases upwards, its crown tends upwards towards the sun, but the crown has a free form, it may be slightly curved or inclined. To some degree - this style combines the two previous ones. The symbol of this plant is considered to be simple and flexible on par with the desire to reach up and resist the obstacles.
Trees of this style really grow cascades down crown. Soft branches of the stele, caving gently, and do not break under the weight of snow or wind exposure. Such a tree is unusual and original looks in the home the pot. And it symbolizes the ability to adjust to the surrounding circumstances.
Of the container in which the tree grows, the juice comes out not one trunk, but several. As a rule, one branch is always more and more massive than the other. Stems may be two or more, they look beautiful and harmonious. In another way, this style is called "father and son", because fewer trees as it stretches more, wants to be like him. Therefore, this style of bonsai symbolizes the link between generations and the transfer of experience.
Such a tree is inherent in a long bare trunk and a small crown at the top. The plant has practically no branches, but the vegetation at the top of the barrel looks harmonious and beautiful. Such trees have learned to grow among the first, and their shape symbolizes the ability to rise above the challenges and bustle.
This kind of bonsai is a composition of several trees, which looks like a small woods together. Most often planted in a single container trees one species but ose-UE and allows a combination of several types of plants. An important rule - trees should be an odd number.
Isidzuki - trees among the rocks
In this style, the trees grow on the rocks and in crevices of them. For this plant is quite difficult to take care of at home, so it can grow only a true master, fascinated by his work. But isidzuki symbolizes resilience and ability to survive in any conditions.
Of course, this is not all the styles of Japanese small trees, varieties of them much more. But you should start with simple options to learn how to care for bonsai and find out what their conditions are most suitable. Then the process will bring pleasure, and the result will please a beautiful healthy plant.
Especially caring for miniature trees
In spite of the unusual nature of indoor plants, bonsai, care for them involves almost the same conditions as that of many other colors. First of all, you need to prepare a suitable ground in which the Japanese tree will feel comfortable. Thereafter, it is important to set it in place with sufficient illumination to maintain the desired temperature of the air and ensure regular watering.
Bonsai - small trees, but they also require periodic change. It is therefore important to know the rules and characteristics of transplants miniature trees.
A distinctive feature is the need to bonsai pruning. Here, too, you need to follow certain requirements in order to form a beautiful and the correct form of a mini-tree. Given these nuances, will cultivate a unique plant.
Optimum soil and transplanting bonsai
The main purpose of the transplant - not to increase the capacity in which the growing miniature trees and prune the roots and renew the soil. Therefore, as a rule, the pot remains the same. Pruning the roots can slow the growth of the tree, it is tiny and neat.
As for the soil, it requires a certain structure to bonsai felt comfortable, he was enough of trace elements and minerals. The land before planting consists of 3/5 humus soil, 1/5 peat and 1/5 sand, although in many large flower shops you can buy ready-mix for bonsai. Its main characteristics - lightness and low acidity.
Transplant done in the spring, when the active growth of roots and crowns. By changing the soil in the container, which is growing miniature trees, you need to carefully trim the roots, leaving a rounded shape. Most long roots should be central, and the side - a little shorter. The tree sits in a new soil to a depth of no more than 5-6 cm.
Lighting and a suitable location
Miniature trees are like light, but fade in direct sunlight, so the plant will have to pick a place on the windowsill east or west window. Especially dangerous sun exposure just transplanted tree, such conditions can complicate the process of adaptation.
If the place where there is a pot of bonsai, obscured, it is necessary to provide artificial lighting. Dim leaves that are constantly showered - it is the problem of poor light. During the summer, a container of the tree can be placed in the open air - a balcony or terrace.
Miniature trees love water and moisture, but it is better not to pour from above, and by setting the pot in a tray. It is applied stones, filled with water to a level of 2-3 cm and put pot plant. It was a small depth of the pot leads to the fact that the soil dries quickly, so you need abundant and regular watering. In winter, watering bonsai need to once a week in the summer - once in 4-5 days.
At high ambient temperatures it is recommended to spray leaves bonsai plant through their surface also saturate with moisture.
Temperature and humidity
Along with high requirements for soil moisture, bonsai can live and grow beautiful tree only at low temperatures. The optimal temperature of 12-18 degrees, even in summer. In the spring, when the outside air temperature becomes higher than the level of 12-14 degrees, can be taken to the balcony bonsai. In this case, the tree should be protected from drafts.
As for humidity, the miniature trees for best batting average of 40-50%. Bonsai should not be placed near radiators, and if the winter in the dry air of the room, the moisture in the pan will help the plant to not feel a lack of moisture.
To form a beautiful tree desired shape, it is a constant Icons crown required. This should be done by special shears or a small well-sharpened scissors. As a rule, pruning is carried out in the spring before transplanting. In the process it is necessary to remove old and dead branches, trim the shoots to form the desired shape of the crown.
Thus, the conditions of caring for bonsai at home have their own characteristics, but it is not particularly difficult. Learn to understand how they feel small tree by the way it looks, every grower will be able to satisfy those requirements, which are at the plant. The very process of pruning, transplanting, watering, and the contemplation of bonsai will plunge into the world of nature and silence. For this, and I appreciate the small but unique and beautiful Japanese trees.
Re: Small Japanese trees: the art of growing bonsai
I like so much is the art! I tried to grow a tree of Chinese rose - is a typically large shrub with large bright flowers. It is a well-clipped me and grew me in the right direction. But still get a great plant for bonsai.
Cool to receive all of the plants and flowers on their mail.
Bonsai - a tree on a tray: particular care and cultivation in the home
According to legend, the Chinese emperor decided to watch his country firsthand, what the masters of China had to create a tiny copy of the houses, people and, of course, trees. Bonsai tree in miniature, almost fifteen hundred years ago, first conquered Japan, but today it's an amazing skill to conquer the world.
Like many centuries ago, the goal grower, bonsai enthusiastic - Play creations of nature. Small copies of oaks, maples, pines, Sakura or figs have realistic proportions, they live, according to the routine nature of the routine. If the pot is grown deciduous tree, it blooms, leafs and goes into winter dormancy.
As skilful semblance of real wood is formed by hand, the cultivation and care of bonsai - it is labor-intensive, time-consuming, requires knowledge, patience and understanding of the needs of his green pet.
Yet more and more newcomers enthusiastically takes up the difficult but very exciting work. How to grow bonsai at home and take care of a small copy of this tree?
Among the uninitiated in the intricacies of ancient farming techniques are of the opinion that the Japanese bonsai trees - a plant derived their special seeds. This is not true. Experienced growers are well aware that the tiny fir, pine, apple and wisteria emerged from conventional seeds, and make them to moderate their growth and change shape could only human hands.
How to grow bonsai house: common ways
If the florist is just beginning to take an interest in bonsai, the easiest way to buy is already formed, for example, ficus or citrus plant. It will help to master all the techniques of avoiding the usual watering to trimming and adjusting the shape of the trunk and branches. Experience would go to more complex tasks.
Grow Bonsai home in several ways:
- by seeding liked the culture and the subsequent "education" seedling;
- using the rooted cuttings;
- the formation of seedlings from the nursery or wildlife;
- transferring into the pot, and the correction is already an adult cultural or wild specimen.
The fastest of these methods is the formation of crown and root system one- or two-year seedlings. Such a plant is already developed roots, with its surface portion provides space for imagination and can be modified according to the plans of grower.
Enthusiasts who are interested in how to grow a bonsai from seed, you should know that this path is the longest, but also rewarding. Here, control of the plant man has literally after pipping the seed, and to change the form of shoots and roots is easier because of their flexibility.
Not necessarily choose exotic woods or bushes. The main thing is that the plant had small leaves and a small annual increase, or "tame" the future bonsai tree will be much harder.
Choosing the appropriate bonsai tree
What kinds of plants suitable for bonsai tree in the Japanese style? To quickly get an attractive tree, it is possible to pay attention to:
- at room citrus varieties, such as Calamondin or plain lemon;
- Miniature pomegranate;
- an incredibly common and unpretentious Ficus benjamina;
- on ornamental varieties of apple;
- on willow;
- on stunted pines;
- on various types of maple.
Selecting suitable for bonsai trees is incredibly large, and many of them - the indigenous inhabitants of Russia, and are found in gardens, parks, urban parks and forests. Splendid composition obtained from irgi and barberry, hawthorn, acacia, birch, linden and elderberry, spindle tree and oak.
Before you grow bonsai, based on the type of plant, determine its future height and style.
Seeds of trees and bushes, bonsai suitable to be divided into two types. Part of the crop is immediately ready to germinate, but in the "program" of many kinds of evolution laid down during hibernation, when the germ waits cold season. At home, help simulate winter stratification.
Seeds of Japanese bonsai trees for 3-5 months during the wet laying sand or sphagnum moss, whereafter the container is placed in a refrigerator. When a small positive temperature in humid environment seed preparing for growth. When it will take to heat, sprout quickly awakened. For evergreen species and plant seeds having a particularly strong shell-up using heat or temperature contrast.
Sowing seeds is carried out from spring to early autumn. The seedlings obtained in the second half of the summer, is already in need of illumination, which is indispensable in the fall and winter.
Germination and seedlings early months of life using a light sand-peat substrate or soaked and scored moisture peat tablets. While on the surface does not seem to sprout, the capacity should be in the dark under the film. The air temperature is selected depending on the grown bonsai tree.
To avoid condensation and rot teplichku aired. When the shoots inside provide a small fresh air and seedlings transferred to the light. As required seedlings watered and fertilize the complex compositions. When the plant reached a height of 10-12 cm, it is transplanted.
At this stage, the main root pruned by a third, to slow down the vertical growth of trees. Immediately begin to shape the future of the barrel, which use copper wire.
Choosing pots and soil for bonsai
Bonsai tree is often called grown on a tray. To limit the growth of the pet, it is planted in the notoriously small and shallow container, parallel to the shaping and cutting out a portion of the root system.
When selecting a pot for bonsai is necessary to consider that over the years and the tree becomes severe, particularly when improper inclined or cascade form may lose stability. Therefore, for bonsai, with dimensions from a few centimeters up to 9 meters, traditionally made massive, often ceramic pots, bowls or containers of different shapes and styles.
At the bottom of the container should be a drainage hole and not one. They are used not only to drain the water, but also for fixing plant.
Protect plant and protect it from fungal infection of the root system will help the processing of the pot for bonsai hot solution of potassium permanganate or scalding with boiling water.
Soil for bonsai is not only designed to provide power to the plant and retain moisture, it should help the roots to gain a foothold in a relatively small amount of pot. Therefore, for the miniature copies of these oaks, limes, lemons, maple and other trees use a special substrate.
In Japan for many centuries such a mixture on the basis of certain clays referred akadama. For more nutritional and looseness in the granular substance is added fertile soil and sand:
- For deciduous species bonsai trees recommend inclusion substrate 7 share turf land and 3 parts of a large-washed sand.
- Flowering culture grown on a mixture of 7 parts of humus, sand, and three parts of the fat-based 1 part humus.
- Conifers, the most popular among bonsai lovers in need of special loose soil, for which take 3 parts of the turf soil and 2 parts washed sand.
Before filling the pot soil for bonsai sorted out, removing impurities that can damage roots, sieved and sterilized. At the bottom of vessel arrange drainage layer to drain excess moisture.
Bonsai tree care at home
Small miniature tree to buy, get the young seedling root or stalk liked the breed. It is important to know how to care for bonsai trees.
Constantly limiting growth, forming a crown and growing bonsai in a small pot, a person completely changes the life of the tree or shrub. Therefore, care for such a culture is very different from taking care of other houseplants.
The main objective of the grower - to adjust watering bonsai deal with that when a small volume of soil and a shallow pot filled with roots, is not easy.
Previously available only growers were specially shaped watering can or the ability to immerse the bonsai pot in a bowl of water to wet the soil below. Today, the plant is widely used irrigation or drip irrigation that allows dosing and without the risk of blur moisten the soil under the bonsai.
For watering taking only a soft, melted or defend the water. During the growing season the plants need more moisture, with the onset of autumn and approaching dormancy period reduce watering and spend less, focusing on the condition of the substrate.
Feeding is carried out at intervals of 2-3 weeks, using its mixture of different cultures and times of the year. There are mineral supplements based on algae for Japanese bonsai trees.
You can not leave the plant without power, but it is equally important not to overfeed bonsai. Therefore, in the care of bonsai trees in the home dressing is made very carefully:
- spring, at the maximum growth rate including a fertilizer two times more nitrogen than potassium and phosphorus;
- proportions summer left unchanged, but the concentration is reduced by half;
- closer to fall, particularly for deciduous cultures twice increase of potassium and phosphorous and nitrogen on the contrary, reduced.
- flowering and fruit-bearing trees and shrubs like more potassium walking on the formation of flower buds and ovaries.
When winter comes to exotic evergreens nothing changes, but coniferous and deciduous trees have to prepare for winter. How to care for bonsai trees in the winter? If the climate allows, they are left on the streets or are entered on the not heated terrace. The root system of a small pot for bonsai may suffer first, so it additionally harbor and the ground a little dry. With the onset of spring plant wakes up again and needs watering, fertilizing and mandatory for shaping bonsai crown and roots.