- 1 Hipped roof - photo and basic design features
- 2 How to make a solid hip roof
- 3 repair Alphabet
- 4 Hipped roof with his hands. How to calculate and construct
Hipped roof - photo and basic design features
Hipped roof can be transferred to one of the most popular types of roof that gives the appearance of originality of the structure view. It is often used in the construction of large facilities for the simple reason that this design looks compact and neat unlike the double ramp analogue with gables. Hipped roof can be both standard and include different components. So, roof or skylight give the original design.
Hipped roof system as pictured favorably with a gable roof counterpart, not only externally, but also the ability to deal with a much more reliable protection of the premises against external weather conditions - rain, snow or wind. At the same time, despite the fact that the hipped roof system structurally complicated standard gable roof, it is quite possible to build their own hands in the houses and pavilions of small size.
Varieties hipped hipped roof systems
If we talk about the hipped roof systems, they can safely deposit any roof, having four ramp, with 2 of them always have the shape of a trapezoid, and the remaining 2 are repeated triangle. Also hipped roof structures are divided into gambrel, hipped and transitional poluvalmovaya roof.
hip roof, photos which you can see is the roof system with two triangular and trapezoidal two ramps. In turn, poluvalmovaya design differs from the previous triangular pitched roof, are built not on the entire height, but only in the upper part of the roof.
If speak about hipped roof structure, it consists of four triangular-shaped surfaces which converge at one point at the apex of the roof, thus completely repeating structure of a pyramid with four ribs. The basis of such a roof is always a square room. In this case, the structure does not gables.
Design gambrel roof
As with most other performing construction work in front of the roof arrangement, a detailed draft of the future, taking into account the main roof loads imposed on the truss system. In this case, there are the following basic load, which may affect the structure and parameters of the rafters:
- by weight of the material used as a roof;
- GVW roofing "pie", which includes the following elements: waterproofing, insulation and sheathing;
- the estimated load on the roof of the layer of snow in the winter;
- wind load on the roofing system;
- specific load, depending on the seismic activity and other natural factors.
Also an important role in the calculating section and the length of roof beams plays angle of slope of the roof, in accordance with which is selected and roofing material. If hipped hipped roof, a photo where you can see if they have a gentle, almost flat slope, ie the ratio of the slope of the roof is less than 15 °, to then it is advisable to use web materials. In the case where the slope angle is equal to or greater than 35 °, then suitable metal, corrugated sheets or asbestos cement.
In addition, the draft must contain all the steps and the drawings erection truss construction and nodal compounds as well as the roof sheathing. If the design is performed as accurately and in detail, to determine the required amount of roofing and related material, including bars for truss system, it will not be difficult. If this is not possible, it can be ordered from specialist project.
Hip roof - the device diagonal trusses
Hipped hipped roof design as the photo consists of four diagonal roof beams directed towards the outer corners of the structure and converging to a single point at the end of the ridge. The design of the lower nakosnyh hipped roof rafters may vary depending on the materials used in the construction of the building.
If the building has a wooden Planking design, the support for the roof system is upper crown log. The houses framing system - this is the main rail frame. In buildings erected from a brick or stone, as a support pitched trusses used mauerlat which evenly distributes the load from the centered dot beams over the entire area of masonry walls.
himself mauerlat - is not nothing but a bar section 10x10 cm, which is placed in the central part of the wall and closer to its inner side. To protect the roof from the possibility of failure of a strong wind, mauerlat fixed to the walls of a building by means of twists of wire, placed in increments of no more than 100 cm. One end of the wire is attached to the crutch, which, at 30 cm, in turn, is driven between the seams of masonry from the upper edge of the wall, the other free end securely captures mauerlat.
To be more than 40 cm in further allow easy access for inspection and repair mauerlat and truss system, the distance from the upper portion of a floor of the attic and the bottom portion mauerlat. Thus all wooden constructions, in contact with the laying of the bricks, efficiently isolated using a waterproofing material.
The main support upper portion is sloping rafters ridge beam - a beam of wood with a cross section, similar like rafters. For the reason that the gambrel roof design does not provide for the brick gables, as is the case with a gable roof system, wooden ridge beam rests on special racks section 10x10 cm spacing of 3 - 4 m, depending on the size of the structure. The lower end of the rack rests on the sill, which is settling down in several ways:
- on the inner wall, if this is available;
- on floor slab of reinforced concrete, through the columns of bricks.
Ledge-section depends on the features hipped gambrel roof, a photo of which can be observed. In the first case - a beam size 5h150 cm, and in the second -. Bar section 15x15 cm, however, in both embodiments, it is required to equip the quality of any available waterproofing rolled materials.
Design nakosnyh rafters in such a case a little longer than the standard, while they rely narozhniki (truncated pitched rafters). For this reason, they are usually exposed to a load of 1.5 times more than a standard truss system. To design such diagonal legs withstood loads, they are made paired, i.e. composed of two identical elements fastened together.
To reduce the estimated length of the diagonal legs under them set support. As supports can be used as beam size 10x10 cm and brace with a similar section. The struts are arranged at an angle of 45 °, abutting against the lower edge in the sill.
Design features between rafters and narozhnikov
Intermediate hipped roof truss joists abut the upper edge of the ridge beam, and at the lower end mauerlat. They are placed in increments of 100-122 cm. The parameters of the section of roof beams are directly dependent on the gaps between the rafters, snow loads and total weight of the roof "pie".
It is important to take into account the fact that the intermediate truss beams should not have too much free length. If the span of the roof of the building exceeds 8 m in length, under each rafter foot is set one strut or brace, if the length exceeds 10m, then establish two additional support.
Every second rafter foot is also necessary to fix the wall torsions wire diameter of 4 mm and crutches hammered between the seams masonry made of bricks at a distance of 30 cm below the cutoff wall. Fastening between rafters to mauerlat performed by specialized reverse staples.
Rafter polunogi narozhniki or supported at one end in the diagonal leg and the other in mauerlat. In this case, for uniform distribution of loads from narozhnikov on their diagonal rafters fixed to the rafters nakosnym in different places.
Gambrel roof truss system
For the construction of the supporting frame hipped hipped roof using the following the sequence of work:
- On the outer perimeter wall mounted mauerlat.
- The rack locations constructed sill.
- On sleepers arranged support for the ridge run. Racks are arranged vertically and are amplified by level struts as necessary.
- Plumb fixed ridge pole. The accuracy of the installation of the latter will depend on the quality of the entire roof structure.
- In the next step nakosnye installed between the rafters and the ridge mauerlat.
- Mounted intermediate rafters similar to the diagonal legs.
- At the final stage are fixed narozhniki.
After mounting the roof system hipped roof structure assembly proceeds to the so-called roofing pie while strictly following one condition - vapor barrier layers must be increased, starting from the inside toward the outside. System roof "pie" settling down as follows:
- in mezhstropilnom space stacked insulation material layer;
- the inner side roof space steam fits;
- exterior insulation on the rafters laid waterproofing film which constitutes a funnel. The material itself is pressed against the roof system kontrobreshotkoy. Thus waterproofing layer will pass outwardly structure pairs and will not allow moisture to penetrate from the outside;
- over kontrobreshotki fixed sheathing.
Sheathing of the roof will take the load and transmit it to the rafter system. Mounted perpendicularly with respect to the rafters, as it is laid on top of the roofing material. Wherein options lath will depend on the type of roof. So, under the metal stacked boards 3,2h10 cm and 35 cm step; an 8-wave slate - bar 6x6 cm and a spacing of 50 cm; for bituminous roofing and flat asbestos-cement slate - fits waterproof plywood, for their need solid sheathing.
How to make a solid hip roof
In the performance of hipped roof is a little more complicated than usual gable design, its creation requires more time and cost. However, homeowners are increasingly choosing projects with a roof of this type because of its functional features are impressive.
Video design ideas home with original hip roofs ↑
Most often, a roof with four slopes called the hip, because of its design necessarily have flat triangular ramp - hip. Depending on the device hipped roof is of several major types:
- Over the building, the walls of which form a square, you can make a hip roof, consisting of four identical triangular rays.
- Traditional hipped hipped roof consists of two hips and two trapezoidal stingrays, such roofs on buildings make a rectangular configuration.
- For buildings, the construction of complex shapes possible L-shaped hipped roof.
- Dutch or Danish is called the roof, which is less than hip trapezoidal ramps.
Choosing a specific roof design for your home, consider its complexity, as well as the operating conditions are: weather, rainfall, wind load, type of roofing material, the availability of the attic, etc...
The main advantages and disadvantages ↑
Often developers are guided by aesthetic considerations, choosing hipped roof or a tent-shaped variety. It should be said that in reality, and in the photo hipped roof looks just fine, especially if tiles or copper used as roofing material. For this reason, an excellent choice would be the hipped roof of the gazebo. However, stylish look - not only the dignity of the structure.
Hipped roof high reliability and low sail area. They carry a significant wind loads, without losing strength or visual appeal. In addition, the design features allow maximum retain heat, so are almost always under the hipped roof make a cozy and spacious loft. In addition, the hipped roof known long service life, during which you may need only minimal maintenance.
The disadvantages of this type of roof can be attributed the need for careful design and precise measurement, markup, and so. N. Beginners builders who have already mastered the creation of a conventional gable roof, before starting work on such a project should always consult with a professional architect. A lot of useful tips when searching for an answer to the question: "How do hipped roof" can give more experienced colleagues, roofers.
Design features and calculations ↑
The best example for the study of the design features - hipped hipped roof. It uses several different types of trusses, which are attached to the ridge beam:
- Diagonal nakosnye or rafters which connect the ends of the ridge beam and design angles. This is the longest rafters for which it is advisable to use a dual beam, since they account for the highest load.
- Central intermediate rafters, one of which is connected to the end of the ridge beam and the center of the end wall trim, and two adjacent to the side wall in a plane perpendicular to the first rafter. Thus, three central rafters are connected with each end of the ridge beam.
- Intermediate rafters trapezoidal ramps are based on the ridge beam and the upper stud. They are arranged parallel to the central intermediate rafters.
- Short rafters are also arranged in parallel intermediate the rafters. They are mounted on a harness and angled rafters.
Not hard to see that every rafter is the hypotenuse of a right triangle. Knowing the roof pitch and measuring the inception of the (plan view), the rafters, it is possible to calculate the exact dimensions by using the Pythagorean theorem.
. Tip: To improve the accuracy of measurements made special measuring stick length of 2-3 meters and a width of 5 cm mark on the rail all the required dimensions.
How to perform a markup correctly ↑
Theoretically, you can make a layout of an imaginary center lines, but practitioners believe this method is too complicated and long. They recommend the following rules:
- After all the measurements indicate center line on the top trim.
- Calculate half ridge beam thickness and mark the position of the first central intermediate rafters.
- Combine dimensional edge slats with this mark and identify the initiation of intermediate rafters.
- Attach the rail to the outer edge of the wall and mark the size of the eaves.
- Determine the location of the second central intermediate rafters volumetric rail attaching to the inner corner of the upper binding.
- Repeat this procedure for each roof angle.
Thus on mauerlat will be marked the exact locations of the central installation between rafters. Intermediate and short rafters, as already mentioned, are arranged parallel to these elements with a pitch of not less than 60 cm.
Production and installation of roof system hipped roof ↑
As with the establishment of any roof structure, hipped roof device starts with mounting mauerlat and striping. After this is established ridge beam. Usually it is arranged on the vertical supports attached to the central beam. Supports pre strengthen special cut.
Tip: It is important to accurately determine the height and the spatial position of the ridge beam. During its installation it is recommended to use a spirit level and plumb.
The next step - assembling nakosnyh rafters, which form the main plane of the roof. At the same time laid the dimensions of the future eaves. Its size can range from 50 cm to one meter. In determining the size of the eaves of the building need to consider the location and the probable wind load.
Tip: To quickly and as accurately as possible the manufacture of the mounting cutout in the rafters need to make a special triangular pattern. Its cut from plywood, and then reinforcing beam 25 mm thick.
After the installation of diagonal trusses can proceed to the formation of the side roof slopes. Sets the center intermediate the rafters, the rafters and intermediate narozhniki to be arranged strictly in parallel and in one plane with a lateral ramp.
After hipped roof truss system is completed, it is time to start the installation batten. For its production it is recommended to use the sticks 50x50 or 40x40 mm, although in some cases it may be a viable alternative board 25h100 or 25h150 mm.
Under lath lay special membrane layer film, which performs the role of the waterproofing barrier. The film is laid with overlap of at least 20 cm, without tension and sagging. If you plan to arrange attic room, special attention should be paid to the installation of insulation. Its thickness should be about 200-300 mm. Sometimes a thickness increasing from the inside trusses boards to gently place the thick layer of insulation material. Furthermore, it should reliably protect the roof from water vapor entering inside setting vapor barrier.
The reliability of the attic insulation is largely dependent on the quality of waterproofing and vapor barrier. The fact that the majority of insulation when wet lose their useful properties, and it may require serious repairs to the roof. Choosing the heating material should ask its resistance to high humidity conditions.
Roof for a hipped roof can be any. Successfully used in virtually all types of tiles, from inexpensive spectacular ceramic to metal. It is possible to use the prestigious copper roof and galvanized sheet metal, roofing and democratic. Laying a roofing material produced in accordance with the manufacturer's recommendations.
Arrange beautiful and reliable hipped roof is not so easy, but the result will be the design that faithfully will protect the house from the weather. His most simple way to properly arrange the roof slope in four - to put this problem before the team of professional roofers with a good reputation.
Building your own home from the foundation to the roof
Hipped roof with his hands. How to calculate and construct
Hipped roof with his hands. A photo
Four ramp considered the best option for regions with strong winds and large amount of precipitation. Taking the decision to build a hipped roof by yourself, please note that this design sorebuet accurate drawings and attention during measurements and markings.
Hipped roof with his hands. A photo
The main difference hipped (hip) roof with four slopes on the design with two slopes - no need for the device side gables. Pyramidal structure composed of two trapezoidal and two triangular rays, the latter replaced by pediments.
Further phases will look at how to make a hip roof with his hands.
Under the roof can be placed just attic space or residential attic. Construction hipped roof begins with a definition of its purpose and the selection of materials with regard to climate features. Rainfall and wind power is important to consider when choosing the angles of rays, the thickness of materials for wooden components and the type of roofing.
Wooden components must be thicker than the gable design. If the slope does not exceed 18 °, web materials suited for roofing. At 18-30 ° slope is better to choose a metallic or ceramic tile.
Calculate h etyrehskatnoy roof with his hands. A photo
At the completion of the first stage should be to create an exact roofing circuit. You need to know what materials and how much you need to buy.
Stages of construction hipped roof with his hands
For device hipped roof softwood used without defects humidity 18-22%. Primarily base arranged evenly distributes the load on the supporting structures. Along the perimeter of the building is laid layer waterproofing and installed mauerlat -.-Piece beams 10x15 cm or 15x15 cm compounds are made in the cover, for angles binder used metal braces, plates and angles.
The next step is building a hipped roof - installing sleepers. This timber, which supports the rack and is located on the base. Next on the sleepers mounted rack (bar 10x10 or 10x15 cm) with a pitch of rafters (not more than 2 meters), set ridge beam (10x20 cm), temporarily relying on special racks.
When the device hipped roof should be noted that it consists of 4 planes. For ramps in the form of trapezoids required side rafters, for triangular - diagonal (nakosnye). This one-piece timber 10x15 cm and 10x20 cm, which is mounted in increments of 50-150 cm. If necessary connections are mounted lining, fixed in several places.
Hipped roof with his hands. A photo
At points where the rafters rest on the base, it is necessary to make a secure construction and notching of metal elements. Top rafters rest on the ridge beam, coupled to the uprights by means of grooves. To strengthen the structure recommended diagonal supports, braces, steel connecting elements.
The final stage of construction of a hipped roof with his hands - the installation of the waterproofing layer, kontrobreshetki, crates (or solid floor). Stacked to the rafters waterproofing material. His mission - to eliminate the destruction of roof system due to moisture from the attic space under the roofing material. The film is laid overlapping for sealing sealed with tape.
The next step - a device kontrobreshetki. This timber or board treated with antiseptic. Fastened to the rafters, it allows to fix the waterproofing material, creates a cushion of air between the roofing and insulation.
For lathing used dry board width of 4-5 cm, are attached to kontrobreshetke at a distance of 25-30 cm from each other. If not planned development of residential premises in the attic space, then further assembled roofing material.
When the device warm attic on the inner side of the rafters by means stepplerov mounted vapor barrier material (film, foil, glassine paper) to prevent ingress of moisture in the warm room heater. Vapor barrier is laid on a heat insulating material thickness of 15-20 cm.
Next, the assembly process is not different from roofing to the attic space without premises.
Advantages of a hipped roof
Construction hipped roof allows you to:
- convert attic space into residential loft, that is, to increase the usable area of the house;
- increase the level of resilience in the form of wind and rain, thus increasing performance and durability of the roof is extended the term of its operation;
- to make the appearance of the house more attractive.
Despite the fact that the planning and process device requires more time and material costs, the device hipped roof of his hands possible with the basic skills of a carpenter. The farm must be: gasoline, circular saw or hand drill, chisels, hammers, levels, power cord, tape measure. Before starting work, it is desirable to take a close look suitable for video content.