- 1 Battery heat for your home heating system
- 2 Heat accumulators for autonomous heating systems
- 3 What is a heat accumulator for heating systems: functional features, specific application and installation methods
Battery heat for your home heating system
Companies involved in the development of engineering systems, the last years are focused on the development of alternative technological solutions. At the forefront of the concept and direction, not involving the use of natural resources. At least the experts tend to focus on minimizing their consumption. Tangible benefits in this segment demonstrates heat accumulator for heating systems, which is incorporated into an existing set of engineering optimization as an additional component.
General information about the heat accumulators
There are many modifications and variations of thermal batteries, also called buffer heaters. And different tasks to perform such installation. Typically, batteries are used to improve the efficiency of the main unit, for example coal-fired boiler. In these cases it is advisable to use such a system for controlling function, which is difficult to realized in the process of service of traditional boilers in private homes. Most often used for this heat-accumulators tanks, tank reaches 150 liters. In the industrial field, of course, can be used and the installation capacity of about 500 liters.
In the tank are provided elements to ensure maintenance of the necessary temperature of the medium. The very same material from which the tank is mandatory interfaces with layers of insulators. Active components and heating elements are copper pipes. Configuration of their placement in the tanks can be different, as the battery operating parameter control system.
From the point of view of the main task of the drive is to ensure the possibility of maintaining the desired temperature, which defines the user. As the boiler tank gets hot water and stores it until the stop of the heating system functions. Conditions for maintaining the thermal balance defined by insulating materials capacitance and internal heating elements. Classic heat accumulator for heating systems, in fact, reminiscent of the boiler operation, and is also integrated into the circulation system. That is, on the one hand, the equipment is connected to the heat source, and on the other - provides immediate job heaters, as which can act radiators. Furthermore, the system is often used as a complete source of hot water for domestic use in a constant consumption.
Function heat accumulators
As already noted, the units of this type can perform different tasks, which determine the requirements and criteria for the selection of a particular system. To the basic and principal functions include the accumulation of heat from the generator and its subsequent return. In other words, the same tank collects, stores and transfers energy to the direct heating elements. In conjunction with solid fuel boiler to the system functions can be attributed, and protection against overheating. Automated and electronic control relays are ineffective in solid units. Therefore practiced optimization of the boiler by the heat accumulator that naturally collects excess energy and returns it to the moments the temperature declines. Electric, gas and liquid generators easier are manageable, but with the help of the battery can be joined into a single complex and operate with minimal heat loss.
Where the heat accumulator can be used?
thermal storage system suitable for use in cases where the existing heating unit does not allow sufficient control over his work. For example, the solid fuel boilers will inevitably involve moments of service when their power are not loaded. it makes sense to use such a system to compensate for heat loss. Also in the water and electric heating systems such decision is justified economically. Modern heat accumulator with automatic control can be set to work at certain times when operating the most economical rate of energy consumption. So, for example, at night the system will preserve a certain amount of heat energy, which during the subsequent days can be used for any needs.
Where is desirable to use heat accumulators?
Character work buffer battery is designed to provide uniform heat transfer and smoothing the discontinuities at the temperature drops. But this principle of operation is useful not always. Heating systems in which, on the contrary, requires rapid set or decreasing temperature conditions, such an addition would be redundant. In such cases, increase the potential for coolant through the auxiliary buffer tanks will prevent rapid cooling and heating. In addition, it is worth noting that the batteries heat the house for the most part make it impossible for precise temperature control. It would seem that such a decision may be the best heating systems running short intervals - heat capacity sufficiently in advance, and then at the appointed time to use ready-made energy. However, the mere maintenance of an optimal state of the coolant flow requires a certain energy. Therefore, for example, a boiler used for occasional and short-term heating of the dryer, could well do without a battery. Another thing, if we are talking about a whole group of boilers, which can be combined into a single system through a buffer.
Among the main characteristics may be mentioned dimensional parameters of the unit, its capacity, maximum temperature and pressure indicator. For private homes manufacturers offer small installation, the diameter of which may be 500-700 mm, and height - about 1500 mm. It is important to take into account the weight, because in some cases, professionals have the use of concrete ties for giving structure stability. Middle heat accumulator weighs about 70 kg, although the exact value is directly associated with the tank capacity and the quality of the insulation. Performance to reduce temperature and pressure. The first value is about 100 ° C, and the pressure level may be up to 3 bar.
Having knowledge of electrical engineering landlord can not simply connect yourself ready buffer to the heating system, but fully assembled structure. First we need to order a container in the form of a cylinder, which becomes the working buffer. Next transit across the capacitance necessary to recess the return line of the heat accumulator future. To start the connection should be with the connection of the return of the boiler and the tank. From one component to the second should provide a place on which the circulation pump is installed. With the help of a hot heat transfer fluid moves from the barrel to the cut-off valve and an expansion tank.
Mount the heat accumulator with their hands need in a way that suggested the most rational distribution of liquid through all the rooms. To assess the quality of the assembled system can provide the presence therein thermometers explosive valves and pressure sensors. This inventory will allow to estimate how much battery will operate efficiently through the connected circuits.
Classic heat accumulator involves the use of water as an energy carrier. Another thing is that this resource can be used in different ways. For example, it is used for the supply of heating floors - liquid passes through the downcomer in a special coating. Also, water can be used for the operation of the soul and other needs, including technological, hygienic and sanitary properties. It is worth noting that the interaction with the boiler water is quite common, and because of its low cost. A water heat accumulator is cheaper as compared with the electric heaters. On the other hand, they also have their drawbacks. As a rule, they are reduced to the nuances in the organization of the circulation networks. The greater the amount of resources consumed, the more expensive its organization. installation costs are one-time, but the operation would be cheaper.
In water systems presence of comb structure provides a heat exchanger intended for a geothermal pump. But it can also be used in a solar collector. In fact, it turns out the center of the power plant, which optimizes the function of the heating station from the energy reserve from different sources. While solar heat battery is less common, it may well be used in the most common heating systems. Solar collectors also save energy potential, which is then consumed by households. But it is important to consider that the hot coolant in the form of water itself requires less energy than the solar battery. The best option is the use of such batteries direct integration panels in places where heating should be carried out without any additional conversions.
How to choose the best heat accumulator?
Should come from several options. To begin with defined functionality of the system and its performance level. The tank must be completely within the scope of which it is planned to spend during the operation of the heating system. Not worth saving and control systems. Modern relay with automatic controls not only make it easy programming of engineering systems, but also provide the protective properties. Properly stocked heat accumulator has a protection against idling and provides ample opportunities for the display of temperature modes.
We can not say that every house heat accumulators will certainly give savings of Finance. On the reduction of heating using such buffers costs users say that cater to large private homes and cottages. To maintain the optimum thermal regime 2-3 rooms tanks with liquid reserve use impractical. But almost all the users emphasize the convenience that provide heat accumulators. Reviews of holders of traditional boilers, for example, point out that the existence of such a tank eliminates the need for constant monitoring of the furnace. The unit according to a predetermined program automatically redistributes heat by facilitating the function of the combustion chambers.
On the market are many alternatives that can replace and boilers, and the buffer tank. However, the complex comprising a combination boiler water and coal-fired boiler, is the most advantageous in cost and ease of use. Provided rational distribution circuits, heating the heat accumulator will provide the required temperature level. Therefore, the most important events will be associated with the design of the system, which determines the efficiency of the boiler functions. We should not be limited to simple schemes of heat distribution. Teploregulyatory and radiators in modern modifications organically supplement battery system, interacting with them in different operational modes.
Heat accumulators for autonomous heating systems
When using a gas boiler we do not need their own to maintain a certain temperature in the heating circuit - is engaged in automation. But everything changes when the house is put a solid fuel boiler. Fuel burn unevenly in it, which leads to overheating or cooling of the heating system. Compensate these oscillations and to stabilize the temperature in the circuit will heat accumulator for heating. Roomy storage tank can hold a surplus of thermal energy, gradually giving it to the heating system.
In this review, we consider:
- As working heat accumulators for heating systems;
- How to calculate the necessary amount of the battery of the tank;
- How to connect storage tanks;
- The most popular models of thermal storage.
We go through these points in more detail.
The operating principle of the storage tank
If you set the home solid fuel boiler, there will be a severe need in the regular podkladyvaniem all the new portions of the wood. All the matter in a limited volume of the combustion chamber - it can not accommodate unlimited number of logs. And the systems of their automatic feeding has not yet come up with, if not to take into account the pellet boilers with automatics. In other words, it is necessary to monitor the work of their own heating system.
The maximum capacity of these boilers are developing at the moment when they blaze firewood fun. At this point, they give a lot of extra energy, so users are metered firewood neatly by placing them one by one be lazy. Otherwise the house would be too hot. Nothing good about it, since because of this growing number of approaches already high. The problem is solved by means of heat storage.
Heat for heating the battery is a storage tank in which hot coolant is accumulated. Wherein the heating energy is given to the contour of strictly dosed that provides temperature stability. In this households dispose of and frequent temperature fluctuations of approaches for laying wood. Storage tanks are able to accumulate excess heat and gently give them to the heating circuits.
Let us try to explain the principle of operation on the fingers:
Ease termoakkumulyatora design not only increases the reliability of the unit, but also simplifies the repair and routine maintenance.
- boiler installed in a heating system with accumulator tank is loaded with wood and produces a large amount of thermal energy;
- The resulting energy is directed to the thermal battery and accumulates there;
- Simultaneously, a heat exchanger, heat sampling occurs for the heating system.
Buffer tank for heating (also known as heat accumulator) operates in two modes - the accumulation and returns. In this case the boiler power may exceed the required thermal power for heating dwellings. While in the furnace will burn wood, heat buildup in termoakkumulyatore will occur. After the logs will go out, the energy will be a long time to climb out of the battery.
Heat accumulators for heating systems are needed in that case, if the heat source used solar cells or heat pumps. Those batteries can not provide warmth around the clock, as in the dark their efficiency falls to zero. In the light of the day, they will not only heat the house, but also to accumulate heat in the storage tank.
Heat accumulators can be useful when using electric boilers. Such a scheme is justified on the dual-rate system of payment. In this case, the system is configured so that there was an accumulation of heat in the daytime and began its return at night. Due to this there is an opportunity for consumers to save money on electricity consumption.
varieties of the storage tank
heat accumulator for heating system is a roomy tank, equipped with a sound insulation - that it is responsible for minimizing heat losses. Using one pair of nozzles accumulator connected to the boiler, and with the other pair - a heating system. Additional connections for connecting DHW or other sources of thermal energy can be provided here. Let's look at the main types of storage tank for heating systems:
In the presence of the circulation pump it is possible to use multiple buffer tanks that can evenly heat the several rooms.
- The buffer capacity - is a simple tank, devoid of internal heat exchangers. The design involves the use of one and the same heat carrier in the boiler and batteries for the same allowable pressure. If it is planned to pass through a heat medium boiler, and on the other batteries, must be connected to an external heat exchanger storage tank;
- Thermal batteries for individual heating with lower, upper, or with several heat exchangers - heat accumulators are used to organize two independent circuit. The first circuit is a tank, connected to the boiler, and the second - the heating circuit with the battery or convectors. Heat transfer is not mixed may be different pressures in the two circuits. Heat is conducted through the heat exchanger;
- With plate heat exchanger DHW or tank - for the organization of hot water. In the first case, the water can be consumed throughout the day and evenly. The second scheme involves the accumulation of water with a view to its rapid return to a certain time (e.g., in the evening when all take a shower at bedtime) - similarly arranged boilers kosvenniki accumulating water.
Structure for heating heat storage can be very different, selection of the appropriate option depends on the complexity of the heating system, its characteristics and amount of hot coolant sources.
Calculation of the volume of the storage tank
We came very close to the most difficult question - the calculation of the required amount of heat storage. For this, we use the following formula - m = W / (K * C * Δt). The letter W denotes the quantity of excess heat, K - is the efficiency of the boiler (indicated in decimal fraction), C - heat capacity of water (coolant), and Δt - temperature difference determined by subtracting the temperature of the coolant in the return pipe of the temperature in the supply pipe. For example, it may be 80 degrees and the outlet 45 for return pipes - total obtain Δt = 35.
To start calculate the amount of excess heat. Assume that 100 square home area. m., we need to 10 kW of heat per hour. Burning time per wood tab is 3 hours, and the boiler capacity is 25 kW. Therefore, for 3 chasa boiler it will produce 75 kW of heat, of which the heating needs to send only 30 kW. Total we still have 45 kW of excess heat - this will be enough for 4.5 hours of heating. In order not to lose this heat and not to reduce the number of loaded wood (otherwise we trite peregreem system), you should use the accumulator tank.
After the necessary calculations using these tips, you can easily find the model that best satisfies all your needs.
Total we have all four values - is 45,000 watts of heat boiler efficiency (assume 85% of that in the fractional calculus is 0.85), the heat capacity of water and 1,164 temperature difference of 35 degrees. Carrying out the calculations - m = 45000 / (0.85 * 1.164 * 35). In these figures the volume is found to be 1299.4 liters. Rounded and get heat storage capacity for our heating system is equal to 1300 liters.
The simplest scheme connecting the storage tank to the solid fuel boiler envisages the use of the same coolant at equal pressure in the boiler, and heating system. For these purposes, the easiest approach the storage tank without heat exchangers. two pumps are placed on the return pipe - adjusting their performance, we will provide temperature control of the heating system. There is also a similar circuit using a three-way valve - it allows to adjust the temperature by mixing hot and the cooled coolant from the coolant return pipe.
Thermal receivers with built-in heat exchanger designed for use in heating systems with high-pressure coolant. For this purpose, heat exchangers arranged inside them, connected through a circulation pump to the boiler - the so-formed power supply circuit. Internal storage capacitance with the second circulation pump and the heating panels forms a loop. In both circuits can circulate different coolants, such as water and glycol.
Scheme solid fuel boiler with the accumulator tank and DHW enables supply of hot water without a bypass equipment. For this purpose are utilized internal plate heat exchanger or a built-in tanks. If hot water is needed throughout the day, be sure to buy and install a heat accumulator with a flow exchanger. For peak consumption edinomomentnogo optimal battery with hot water tanks.
It is time to deal with the most popular models of the storage tank for heating systems. We'll look at the products of domestic and foreign manufacturers.
Heat accumulator for heating boilers of Russian production of Prometheus
Storage tank manufacturer Prometheus is a Novosibirsk company "SibEnergoTerm". It produces models of 230, 300, 500, 750 and 1000 liters. Equipment warranty is 5 years. Heat accumulators are endowed with four taps to connect to heating and heat sources. For preservation of the stored energy corresponds to a layer of mineral wool insulation. The operating pressure of 2 atm, the maximal -. 6 atm. When purchasing equipment consider its size - so that the diameter of model 1000 liters of 900 mm, due to which the body may not fit in standard doorways 80 cm wide.
Another roomy heat accumulator for 1000 liters of water. It is equipped with one or two smooth pipe heat exchangers, but devoid of insulation that must be considered when installing it - it will have to be purchased separately. The diameter of the housing is 790 mm, but if it is added to the insulation, the diameter grows to 990 mm. The maximum temperature in the heating system is 110 degrees, DHW - to +95 degrees.
These heat accumulators are presented modifications with six or ten connections. Also provided on board the terminals of the temperature sensors. The capacity of the tanks is 960 liters, working pressure - up to 3 bar. The thickness of the heat-insulating layer is 80 mm. The use of other fluids as a coolant other than water is excluded - this applies to both circuits, not only the heating circuit. If necessary, it is possible to connect multiple serial storage tank in a single stage.
Homemade heat accumulators
Nothing prevents to collect heat accumulator for heating systems with their hands - it is necessary to make calculations and draw the drawing, focusing on required capacity. Tanks are constructed of sheet metal 1.2 mm thick being cut plazmorezom, cutting machine or the welding machine. Heat exchangers are organized from metal lines or corrugated pipes. In order to avoid rapid corrosion of the metal, it is necessary to acquire a magnesium anode. As insulation can be used basalt wool.
As a bonus give detailed drawing heat storage capacity of 500 liters - it is enough to maintain the operation of the heating system in a small house.
What is a heat accumulator for heating systems: functional features, specific application and installation methods
How to reduce the fixed costs of maintaining a comfortable temperature in the house? There are many truly effective ways ranging from boiler installation with maximum possible efficiency, and to installation of alternative heat producing sources. But one of the most productive considered a heat accumulator for heating.
Buffer tanks for heating
In the self-heating schemes are almost always provided continuous operation of the boiler. This leads to an increase in energy costs and reducing the service life of expensive equipment due to wear. heating battery is designed to optimize the performance of the entire system.
It is a tank inside which passes the heating line. Heat is transferred from the pipe to the water in the tank heats it. When turning off the boiler flow temperature reduction occurs and the reverse process - the thermal energy supplied from the water tank through the walls of the coolant pipes. In this manner, heat accumulators for heating systems allow the heating to maintain a comfortable level for a long time after stopping of the boiler.
Why is the battery for heating tanks are not installed in each autonomous system? There are a number of specific factors that must be considered prior to installation:
- volume. To maintain the temperature in the building 120 m² for 10-12 hours required volume of 1.5-1.8 m³ capacity. It is not always possible to place such a water heating battery in the system;
- cost of. The average price of a buffer tank of 750 liters. is about 90 thousand. rubles. In fact it turns out that the heat accumulator in the heating system is the most expensive element.
The latter is the main reason not to put the heat buffer tank. But if we make the approximate efficiency calculations - find that heating a heat accumulator requires 10-15% less energy carrier (gas, wood, coal, etc.) when compared with conventional circuit.
The diameter of the plug-tank pipes must coincide with the dimensions of the piping system. Otherwise an excessive flow resistance.
The design of the heat accumulator
Independent battery manufacturer for heating at home does not bring the desired result. This is due to the specific design and materials used. Make a similar tank improvised without the use of special equipment is almost impossible.
In addition to the basic function of the accumulation of heat, most manufacturers try to improve the design so that the heating system with heat storage could be involved in other areas of life-support of a private house:
- Hot water supply. The heated water in the tank can be used as hot water - for showering, washing dishes, etc. The main thing is that the container was indirect heating;
- Switching element for connection of alternative heat sources - solar systems, heat pumps. This heating circuit with a heat accumulator allows to heat the water therein due shareware solar energy. As a result - a reduction of current costs;
- Connecting several boilers in a single circuit. Thus it is possible to organize a heating boiler for solid fuel and gas.
To reduce heat losses in the heat accumulators for heating systems, provided by two walls - external and internal. The space between them is filled with insulation, more often - basalt wool. In addition, most models have an additional heat source - an electric heater. It allows maintaining the water temperature in the tanks accumulators for heating at the required level. It also enables the use of the capacity even with idle boiler as an ordinary electric boiler.
When using alternative sources of heat it is recommended to get a tank with two pipeline circuits.
Calculation of thermal heating battery
In practice, the first necessary to calculate the optimal amount of water for heating the accumulator. There is a misconception that the higher the rate - the better. However, when exceeding the critical volume in the tank water heating speed is significantly reduced and it simply does not have time to reach the desired temperature. This applies particularly to systems with maximum coolant heating to 60 ° C (low-temperature heating operation).
The main condition for heating with heat accumulator operation is to maximize the system performance when the boiler is off. Therefore, the main indicator when choosing a buffer capacity of the characteristics is the time in which the heated water in it cools down.
The most frequent errors in calculating the heating system with a heat accumulator:
- Accounted for only a nominal capacity of boiler. Allegedly sufficiently ratio: 1 kW of energy is required from 25 to 50 l volume. But in this case, take into account the time of cooling the coolant ?;
- Location system. The greatest efficiency is achieved only for the heating circuit with the heat accumulator, which is mounted immediately after the boiler. Then, the heat transfer will be optimal.
For the calculation need to know the capacity of the boiler and heating system mode. Assume that the heater generates 22 kW / h. In this operation mode 70/40 (70-40 = 30 ° C). In such a case, the optimal amount of heat storage in the heating system is:
It now remains to calculate the heating water in the tank. Alas, the universal formula for this does not exist. There is a large dependence on the performance of a specific battery model to the heating system. But these data can be taken from the instructions or the manufacturer's website. As an example, consider the heating rate dependence of the storage tank Wirbel varying capacitance of the power boiler.
Given these figures, you can accurately calculate the approximate volume of the heat accumulator in a particular heating system. More exact calculations are done using special software systems that allow for the speed of circulation of the coolant, the heat loss and possible changes in heating modes of operation.
Any payment scheme must take into account the manufacturer's recommendations and requirements for the autonomous heating system.
Installing the heat accumulator
On the correct installation of the water in the battery heating is not only the heating of water in it, but also the efficiency of the entire system. The determining factor is the method coolant circulation - the gravity or by a pump. In the first case the batteries are installed in tanks to the upper heating expansion tank, as close to the boiler.
It should be borne in mind that the velocity of the coolant will be reduced slightly. This is due to the increase in length accelerating tube due to tie the secondary portion located in the tank. For gravity systems it is recommended to reduce the settlement tank volume by 10-15%.
Place mounting system with forced circulation is not regulated. It is important that the coolant level in the heating with heating pipes of heat accumulator maximal. Accordingly, the container must be placed close to the boiler to meet these conditions:
- The tank is placed after the security group;
- The temperature in the room where the container is located, should be from 10 to 35 ° C;
- Free access to all nozzles designs for the repair and maintenance work;
- Ability to connect both the primary and the return pipe.
Most often in heating it with a heat storage tank is mounted directly in the boiler. Do not install the boiler above level.
In addition to these conditions, there may be additional, regulated by the manufacturer. They will take into account not only when choosing the place of installation of the tank, but to regulate the output of the boiler.
When installing the heat accumulator for heating systems with electrical TAN further recommended mount multirate electricity meter accounting. Then it is possible to achieve significant savings, including electric heating tank at night.
The video clearly shows the principle of heat storage in a private home heating system: