Box for electrical machines

Shield the electric meter and automatic

Electric plate for electric power distribution and protection of electrical wiring from overloads and short circuits. If earlier to control home electrical meter was enough with a couple of machines, but now everything has changed. Most recently, 800 watts of power was enough for the whole apartment. But now, electricity consumption reached 7 kW and higher. The photo below shows the old (a) and modern (b) protect the wiring system.

Old and new electrical wiring protection systems

With an increase in power consumption for today's network needs reliable device protection. Properly connect the switch box can be turned to the experts for help, or to collect it with his own hands. In both cases it is necessary to understand its structure, the wiring diagram with the requirements and regulations of the installation, as well as possess the skills electrician.

The house is made of wood wiring should be done with great care and in compliance with the fire safety rules.

When selected and mounted electrical shield, the following requirements apply to it:

  1. The box should provide accommodation in it the necessary amount of equipment, and even with a small margin. The size defined by the number dialed elements. Unipolar machine is 1 module. The remaining apparatuses are sized multiples of its size. Bipole placed on two modules, a counter size can be greater than eight. If you calculate the required number of devices, you can select the box. Models sold by size or number of modules that can fit within, for example, the device 12 or 36 modules.
  2. Electrical shield is made from an incombustible material with electrical sign, of the rated voltage. The material is metal or coated with electrically non-conductive thermoplastic. The devices can withstand high mechanical loads and design can always find what you need.
  3. External and internal wiring in the panel marked with the labels, which should be specified group of items.
  4. Zero and ground wires connected to pads - one for each terminal. Blue marked tires and black for zero phase.
  5. Selection of machines made under the section of the cable. If set copper conductor of 2.5 mm 2, the maximum allowable current for it is 25 A. RCD or machine settings are selected from a standard range downward, that is 16 A. Between a connecting busbar device is desirable.
  6. The metal box must be grounded through the door and the housing.
  7. Each box is sold with a passport, which shows the type and class of a switch, the level of protection, precautions, installation method, etc. Data.
  8. External wiring in the box is introduced into the metal tubes or sleeves. By setting the inner electrical shield thereto hollowed out Stroebe cable sheaves (fig. Below).

Installation of a switch hidden wiring

Type depends on how the constructed box. The apparatus may be as follows:

  • embedded - for concealed wiring (see Figure below).
  • overhead - in rooms with exposed wiring;
  • floor - preferably for industry.

The box of the first type is inserted into the requisite infrastructure niche and looks attractive. On the wall is visible only to cover and there are no protruding parts.

Built-in electric panel

Disadvantage is the need to manufacture niche, if it is not provided for in the home design. Advantageously falshstenu manufacture of plasterboard. The box is mounted through a rear wall with glue tacking the edges or gypsum.

To hollow niches in the bearing walls under electric box is forbidden!

The consignment note model is universal. To her open and concealed wiring can be provided.

Conduit under the apparatus is designed as a box with a door (Fig. Below). Inside it are DIN-line to set a counter, machines and other equipment.

Surface mounted electrical panel

Metal box comprises openings for the wires above and below. The plastic housing is made to break out hatches. Input wires in a box protected by couplings and seals.

Wiring required to mount the pads and the circuit with their own hands, and they necessarily require electricians checking papers. They can be drawn by hand or created with the help of special programs. It is important that the scheme has been made correctly and provide a convenient home electrical operation.

First type of network to be connected is determined. In apartments it is a single-phase, and in private homes may be the same or three-phase.

grounding system type can be TNC, TN-S or TNC-S. The first of them, combining and ground zero, was created under the old regulations, and does not apply to new homes.

Schematic model of the electrical circuit shown in Fig. below. It shows only a legend.

The electrical circuit board

On entering the single-phase single pole circuit breaker fitted with a counter. Behind them is a common fire RCD. In the next step, all consumers are divided into groups. Where necessary, set the differential machines. If they are not needed, it will be enough circuit breakers. The optimum is the following distribution of the rooms:

  • outlet group;
  • lighting switches;
  • individual machines on the bathroom and powerful electrical appliances: washing machine, water heater, air conditioning, electric.

Technical characteristics of the machines selected by each group.

The simplest scheme of a switch branching line 3 shown in Fig. below.

Driving with the electrical wiring on the three electric lines

Power is supplied to the counter (phase - red, zero - green), and then goes to the automatic loading and 1-3. Yellow denotes a ground wire. It protects not only appliances, but also shield.

When connecting the meter it is important not to confuse the phase and neutral terminals. All necessary explanations are instructions for it.

In the store you can buy a box immediately with standard equipment, but it is often necessary to select items on their own, according to the developed scheme. Types and Functions include:

  1. DIN-rails for placement apparatus are made of metal plates, which are mounted on the switch box.
  2. Automatic Input - automatic switch for supplying electricity object in a case of a circuit overload or short-circuit (short-circuit).
  3. Instruments of the calculation of energy consumption, installed in a separate box or with the rest of the equipment. Counter type may be an induction or electronic. Wiring diagrams of both are the same.
  4. Circuit breakers that protect the wiring (chosen by size and character of loads). They are selected with a focus on the most current, valid for a certain section of the wire when switched load. The devices themselves can be protected from destruction integrated fuses. The machine can operate immediately when a fault occurs in 15-60 min or if the load current exceeds the rated marginally.
  5. Distribution bars to zero and the ground (can be open and closed version).
  6. RCD - human protection device against electric shock. Furthermore, they do not permit fire when a leakage current in the wire. May be used instead of differential machine, perform additional functions of the circuit breaker. In this case, instead of two devices in one panel set. This saves space. instrument denomination selected the same or a step higher than him standing in front of the machine.
  7. Sometimes guards set voltage relay. This is not required, but the presence in the house it is useful to expensive electronics. When the voltage deviation from the set value circuit is broken. Moreover, the device shows how the voltage changes with time in the circuit.
  8. Wiring - a means to create connections.

Wiring in the apartment is divided into groups and each of them are calculated load, and then calculates the required line cross-sections, and selected the appropriate machine. The layout is roughly as follows:

  • Group lighting and sockets in the hallway and bathroom (6 A, Emergency circuit breakers);
  • Group coverage bedrooms and halls (6 A circuit breaker);
  • lighting sockets in the kitchen (16 A, Emergency circuit breakers);
  • outlet group in the room and a bedroom (16 A, Emergency circuit breakers);
  • a separate connection to the electric stove, washing machine, air conditioning (a circuit breaker is used, depending on the capacity of consumers).

For the outlet group in the security system and home router set automatic 6 A (you can add an uninterruptible power supply).

As a result, the total capacity, while the inclusion of all loads will be approximately 7 kW. For the internal network should be established here a bipolar lead-in machine at 32 A.

Installation and wiring is carried out with the following color-coded:

  • L - phase wire of white, red, or brown color;
  • N - zero blue wire;
  • PE - ground yellow-green color.
  1. color code must be observed live.
  2. Connections and installing apparatuses are arranged so that inside the shields were arranged clearly understandable without a circuit (Fig. Below). The more they order, the easier it is to maintain.
  3. Power connections are made from the top down (more powerful devices are installed above). With this arrangement, the switch box can be quickly de-energize in the accident.
  4. Power is fed to the input of the last turn, when the final check is made of all operating cycles. Individual lines are tested for performance using time switching circuits.

Correctly assembled electrical panel

Under the shield of the space available is selected. Usually it is installed in the hallway near the input power cable. installation height is 1.5-1.7 m. In a special shield box with a viewing window counter is placed. In the wall of the hole being made to secure the box at the dowels or screws.

When the shield is installed on the wall, it can be collected as follows:

  1. All groups of wires apartments in advance are supplied to the shield, which is the installation. They should be marked to make it easier to assemble the circuit.
  2. Screws on the shield mounted DIN-rails for mounting devices.
  3. At the top of the tire is set to neutral, and at the bottom - for grounding.
  4. Top mounted automatic input.
  5. In a separate box, as for the counter, can be placed introductory machine.
  6. Groups machines arranged downward with decreasing power. As the webs therebetween special tire is used or they are made of copper wires of 4 mm. Preferred when the location of devices in the panel and on the same electrical circuit.
  7. Cables and wires are introduced through the holes in the box. Since they cut off the outer sheath and the color is made to seal the connection area. There should always be a reserve for future repairs. Zero conductor is connected to the upper bus. To the upper terminals machine is energized and a load connected to the bottom (phase connection to elektrogruppy). wire cross section decreases, starting from the input and to the sites with loads. grounding wire cross-section should not be less than that of the phase input. We can not allow the formation of twist and turns. Power and neutral wires are bred on opposite sides of the shield.
  8. If no new connection counter power to power tools, and illumination can be supplied with the old. Wires are output from the counter close to controller further able to make a connection, and seal apparatus.
  9. After addition of each group is expedient to check its operability, by applying voltage through the temporary connection scheme.

You should first collect the shield without switching, noting the installation location of devices (trial assembly in Fig. Below). It should be possible to quickly turn off the power on the inside and outside.

Trial assembly panel without switching

When the flap is closed, it should be capable of rapid voltage detecting means with a screwdriver or the indicator lamp.

Floor panel (SCHE) located on the floor under the several flats. Usually, it is locked in the lock and open it only with the help of an electrician on duty housing office. Residents access to the electrical panel is prohibited. They can only be switched on after the automatic operation by opening a special cover.

Fig. lower storey is shown schematically a shield wiring on the three flats.

Driving electrical shield on floor

All SCHE entrance powered from common riser (phase bus L1 L2 L3 and N in Fig. higher). In the old housing stock is used earthing system such as TN-C. Each phase is connected to a separate apartment, and the bus is neutral wire is common. Power is supplied to the meter after the RCD, and then goes on branching lines in the flat (lighting sockets and electric). There must be another packet switch upstream of the meter, but in the scheme is not specified.

SCHE upgrades can be done if to get permission from the housing office, and then buy the necessary machines, corresponding to the required power and the protective functions. After that, the electrician will make the following changes:

  1. Is replaced by a supply aluminum cables on copper appropriate section. The compound is a special terminal for dissimilar conductors.
  2. Instead of the old circuit breakers connected to the new desired characteristics.
  3. Replacement of the old ground and neutral conductors on the modern.

Radical method in replacement of electrical SCHE be made if to install a separate box in an apartment with the transfer counter in it. In interstorey board should establish a packet switch or circuit breaker with fuse-links. This requires a resolution of the housing office.

Due to the fact that there are always new devices in the panel you need to leave room for them. Among them are, for example, are as follows:

  • power consumption limiter;
  • consumed power metering device (not count);
  • phase balancing control device.

About the features of a switch board installation can be found by viewing this video.

There is nothing complicated to choose and assemble electric shields for machines, meters and other equipment. It is important to choose the right, calculate the parameters and set them in the electrical wires connecting it. The scheme should be intuitive and easy for maintenance.

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Putting guard in an apartment and a house on their own

Electrical panel in a private house, in the country, the apartment has a double function: provides the input and distribution of electricity and creates a safe operating condition. If you want to understand is not the simple question, can be assembled switchboard with their hands. Introductory machine and the counter must be set by representatives of the electricity supply company, but more, after the counter circuit can collect themselves (although they do not like to lose money). True to the commissioning of the house you will need to invite them to be present at the start, all tested and measured the ground loop. All this - paid services, but they are much less than the full assembly of the shield. If you do everything right and according to the norms, their own get even better for yourself because you are doing.

And in an apartment in a private house there are several options panel layout. This applies mainly to the installation site induction machine and a counter. In a private home can put a counter on a pillar, and submachine gun - on the wall, almost under the roof. Sometimes the counter put in the house, but that if he built it a couple of decades ago. Recently, in the house of metering devices pose extremely rare, although there are no regulations and directives on this subject no. If the meter is placed in a room, it can be put in the plate, then the choice of panel models counter dimensions need to be considered.

In some apartment buildings are counters in the boxes in the stairwells. In this case, the cabinet only under the RCD and machines. In other homes, he stands in the apartment. When upgrading the power, the cabinet will have to buy so as to fit and to also counter or buy a separate box under the counter with the opening gun.

A simple electrical circuit for a small house or apartment

In compiling supply circuit safety is very important. Primarily it provides for people: using RCD - RCD (pictured number 3) is set immediately after the meter. This device is triggered, if the leakage current exceeds the threshold (short-circuited at "earth" or someone put his fingers into the socket). This device breaks the circuit, minimizing the possibility of electric shock. From RCD phase enters the machine inputs, which are also triggered when exceeding load or short-circuit in the circuit, but each in his own area.

In the second step is to ensure the normal operation of household appliances and electrical equipment. Modern sophisticated equipment controlled by microprocessors. Them for optimal performance stable power. After watching for a while energized in our network, it can not be called stable: it varies from 150-160 V to 280 V. This variation import machinery does not withstand. Because though it were some groups of machines, supplying power to the sophisticated technology, better enabled through the stabilizer. Yes, it costs a lot. But surges first "fly" control board. They have not repaired, and forgive me. The cost of such replacement - about half the cost of the device (more or less depending on the device type). This is hardly cheaper. Collecting the switchboard with your hands, or just until the planning, remember this.

One example of a layout for a small circuit panel - 6 automata

Fits stabilizer for one or more groups and activated before and after the RCD group automata. Since the unit is rather big, to shield it will not work to install, but the next - please.

Also in the panel set two buses: grounding and vanishing. On the ground bus infest all ground wires from the devices and appliances. At "zero" bus wire coming from the RCD, and fed to the respective inputs of automata. Denoted generally zero letter N, it is accepted to use the blue wire during wiring. For earthing - White or yellow-green, red or phase lead wire brown.

One of the options put together a small flap

With self-assembly of the switch box, you will need to buy myself a wardrobe, as well as rail (called DIN-rail or DIN rail), which is attached to machines, RCD and switches. When installing the rails, check their level of horizontality: no problems with the automatic mounting.

One of the options DIN-rails in the housing flap

All machines should be connected to each other. This can be done using the wire - connecting their inputs in series, or use ready-made connecting comb. Comb - more reliable, although is more expensive, but when you consider the time you spend on the connection of all machines, it is unlikely that a few dozen rubles have is crucial.

Connection comb for machines in the electrical panel: speed up the self-assembly process

It is not always power scheme is simple: divide the consumer groups on the floors, some of the findings farm building, garage lighting, basement, yard and house territory. With a large number of consumers except RCD after total counter, give the same device, only a lower power - for each group. Separately, the compulsory installation of personal protective devices, the power supply terminal for the bathroom: it is one of the most dangerous areas of the house and apartment.

It is desirable to put protective devices and each of the inputs, which are on the powerful appliances (more than 2.5 kW and a capacity can be even hairdryer). In conjunction with the stabilizer, they will create normal conditions for the operation of electronics.

Also not the most difficult circuit, but with a higher degree of protection - more RCDs

In general, the development of the exact scheme, you have to find a compromise to make the system safe and not spend too much at the same time a lot of money. Equipment to take better-tested companies, as it stands well. But the mains - not an area where you can save.

It's about cabinets / boxes for the installation of machines and other electrical stuffing, their varieties. By type installing switchboards are for outdoor use and for internal. Fitting box attached to the outer wall at the dowels. If the walls are flammable, it is placed under the insulating material is not conductive. When mounted as an external electrical box above the surface of the wall by about 12-18 cm It should be considered when choosing a place of installation:. For the convenience of the service panel is mounted so that all its parts were approximately at eye level. This is convenient in use, but may face injury (acute angles), if the place selected for the cabinet failed. The best option - the door or close to the corner: it was not possible to hit his head.

The housing of a switch for outdoor installation

Shield for concealed installation implies a niche: it is installed and walled. The door is flush with the wall surface can - protrudes a few millimeters - depends on the specific assembly and the enclosure structure.

Housing has metal, painted with powder paint, there are plastic. Doors - solid or with inserts of transparent plastic. The dimensions of the various - Pull up, wide, square. In principle, under any conditions or niche you can find a suitable option. One tip: if you can, choose a larger cabinet: it is easier to work in, which is especially important if you are building switchboard with their own hands for the first time.

Components and dispensing apparatus attachment flap

When choosing a body often use a term such as seats. Means as single-pole machine (12 mm thick) can be installed in the housing. You have a chart on it shows all devices. Consider them in view of the fact that bipolar are double-width, adds about 20% to the development of the network (suddenly buy some other device, and connect to nowhere, or during installation choose from one group to do two, etc.). And a number of "landing" sites look for a suitable shield geometry.

Installation and connection elements

All the modern machines and the RCD have standardized mounting a standard mounting rail (DIN-rail). On the back side they have a plastic guard, which snaps on the bar. Put the device on the rail by hooking it over the recess on the rear wall, the finger presses down on the bottom. After clicking member is mounted. It left it plugged in. Make this scheme. The respective wires are inserted into the terminals with a screwdriver and draw in contact, spinning propeller. Strongly tighten it is not necessary - you can peredavit wire.

Working when power is off, all the circuit breakers are translated into "off" position. Try not to take up the wire with both hands. By connecting multiple items include power supply (input switch), and then in turn include fixed elements, checking for the absence of fault (short circuit).

Connecting the input automaton and RCD

The phase of the input supplied to the input automaton from its output goes to the appropriate input RCD (place the jumper selected section copper wire). In some schemes, the neutral wire of the water supplied directly to the corresponding input of the RCD, and since its output goes to the bus. Phase wire from the output of the protective device is connected to the connecting comb machines.

In modern circuits automatic input bipolar giveHe must simultaneously disconnect both wires (phase and neutral) that in case of failure completely disconnect the network: so are safer and last requirements for electrical safety. Then turn circuit RCD and looks like the picture below.

When using a bipolar input automaton

About setting RCD for DIN-rail Watch the video.

In any scheme, the protective ground wire is connected to a bus, which infest similar leads from electrical appliances. The grounding - a sign of a secure network and make it vital. Literally.

For information on how to properly connect the RCD, see the video tutorial.

With self-assembly flap note that the input automaton and the counter will be sealed energy supplying company. If the counter has a special screw, which cling to the seal, the automatic input of such devices does not. If you will not be able to seal it, or you refuse to start up, or be sealed with a fully entire panel. Because within a common shield box put in place one or two (depending on the size and type of machine), and it is fixed the input automaton. This box when accepting sealed.

Individual machines are installed on the rail just as the RCD: pressed against the rail until it clicks. Depending on the machine type (for one or two poles - wire) Connect to the corresponding wires. What kinds of machines, and the different devices for single and three-phase networks, see video, choosing the circuit breaker nominal described here.

After the required number of devices mounted on the mounting rail, their inputs connected. As said before, it is possible to make webs of wires or special connecting comb. How are the connection wires with a photograph.

Machines in the same group are connected bridges: total phase comes

There are two ways to make the jumpers:

  • Cut into desired lengths conductors, bare their edges and bend the arc. In one terminal to insert the two wires, then tighten.
  • Take quite a long wire, with 4-5 cm clean 1-1.5 cm insulation. Mark kruglogubtsy and bend exposed conductors so as to provide interconnected arc. These bare spots to insert into the appropriate slots, and tighten.

So doing, but electricians talk about the poor quality of the connection. Safer to use special tires. Under them on the body, there are special connectors (narrow slit nearer to the facial edge), into which the contact of the tire. These tires are sold by the meter, cut to the desired length by conventional cutting pliers. Inserting and installing it into the feed conductor of the first machines, spin contacts on all connected devices. To learn how to connect the machines to see the video panel by using the bus.

Machines connected to the output of the phase wire that goes to the load: for household appliances, to sockets, switches, etc. Actually, the panel assembly is completed.

Selection of machines in a house or apartment shield

The switch box uses three types of devices:

  • Machine. Disconnects and turns on the power in the manual mode and is triggered (breaks the circuit) when a short-circuit.
  • RCD (Residual current device). It monitors the leakage current that occurs in the breakdown of insulation or if someone took the wire. If one of these situations, the circuit is broken.
  • Diff. machine (Differential state machine). This device, which combines in one housing two: monitors and availability and fault leakage current.

Dif-machines are usually put in place ligament - RCD + machine. This saves space in the panel - it takes less per module. Sometimes it is important: for example, you need to include another power line, and there is no space to install and no spare machine.

Dif-automatic machine put in place the ligaments and the RCD

In general, often put two devices. First, it is cheaper (dif.avtomaty are more expensive), and secondly, with the drawdown of one of the safety devices you know exactly what happened and what to look for: short-circuit (when turned off the machine) or a possible leak and overcurrent (worked RCD). Emergency circuit breakers triggered when you do not find. Does that put a special model that has a checkbox indicating device was detonated on a fault.

breakers selected current, which is required for a given group of consumers. He simply calculated. One gets the maximum power of all connected devices at the same time in a group, divide by voltage - 220 V, get the required output current. Denomination devices take a little longer, or when all the loads it will be switched off by an overload.

For example, folding of all devices in the group received a total value of 6.5 kW (6500 W). Divide by 220, we obtain W 6500/220 = 29.54 A.

What are the numbers on the body that indicate

Denominations automata current may be as follows: (in A), 6, 10, 16, 20, 25, 32, 40, 50, 63 closest to the larger predetermined value - 32 A. This and seek.

RCD has two types of action: electronic and electronic-mechanical. The difference in the price of the device with the same great options - electronic-mechanical expensive. But to get to guard the house or apartment you need them. One reason: they are more reliable, since the fire, regardless of the availability of food, and for the operation of the electronic power supply is absolutely necessary.

For example, the situation is this: do you repair the wiring, for example, an outlet and de-energized for this network - turn off the automatic introduction. In the process where a damaged insulation. If set electro-mechanical RCD, it will work even in the absence of power. You will realize that something is done wrong and will look for the cause. Electronic same without power inefficient and include network with damaged insulation may have a problem.

To see which device is in front of you, it is sufficient to have at hand a small battery and a pair of wires. Powered by batteries are applying for any pair of RCD contacts. Electro-mechanical works at the same time, e-mail - no. Read more about this in the video.

Further distinguished by current RCD type, which they respond to changes in:

  • type AC - AC sinusoidal current;
  • Type A - AC + pulsating DC;
  • Type B - AC + + pulsating DC rectified current.

It turns out that type B gives the full protection, but these devices are very expensive. For houses or apartment completely shield sufficient type A, but no AC, which are mostly sold as cheaper.

In addition to the type of RCD, it is selected by the current. And in two ways: nominal leakage and. Rated - is one that can pass through the contacts and not to destroy (fuse) them. RCD's rated current is taken a notch higher than the rated current is set in a pair with the machine it. If the machine needs 25 A, RCD take up to 40 A.

Current leakage is even easier: in electrical switchboards for apartments and houses put only two par - 10 mA and 30 mA. 10 mA is put on line with a single device, such as a gas boiler, washing machine, etc. as well as to the premises, where a high degree of protection in the children's room or bathroom. Accordingly, the RCD 30 milliamperes is set in the line, into which several users (devices) - to outlet in kitchen rooms. On light line such protection rarely put: it is not necessary, except on the street or in the garage.

What are the numbers on the body that indicate

Another RCD are different time hold your response. They are of two types:

  • S - selective - triggered after a certain time after the occurrence of the leakage current (rather large time span). They are usually placed at the entrance. Then, in case of emergency, first detaches the damaged device on the line. If the leakage current will then work "senior" selective RCD - usually the one that stands at the entrance.
  • J - is also triggered with a delay (from random current protection) but at a much slower. This type of RCD put into groups.

Dif-machines are of the same type, as RCD and likewise selected. Only when determining the capacity of the current load and immediately think defines denominated.

Several explanations for installation embedded cabinet panel, the order of connection, see the video of the practice, and generalist.

One important detail, which is important for safety. On the RCD or differential machine has a "Test" button. When pressed, the leakage current and the device should work artificially created - the switch moves to the position "off" and the line is de-energized. So check the efficiency. This should be done at least once-a month: to be sure of the reliability of protection. In turn, check all available in the scheme of the RCD. It is important.

Perhaps this is all the information that is necessary to collect the switchboard with your hands. Maybe you still need to learn more about how to divide the burden on the group, read about it here.

Thank you. Everything is clear and easy to understand. It is written in simple and accessible language.

excellent. first-grader will understand the article.

Excellent article! There were doubts whether he will be able to connect a new kitchen and bathroom in a private home or call the electrician. Now sure, that all you can do yourself. Painted simple and affordable. Thank you very much.

We try. Thank you.

Thanks for the article, but there was one question). Ground zero and need to close or not?

No. Earth and zero is not closed. This is possible and would have serious implications.

In the 90s he worked as an electrician at the farm - always "hung on one screw," the earth and zero. In modern times, the use of such devices as the RCD, this trick does not even take place.

Hello, this question ... there is an old house, recently built a new power up and want the old, how to connect and what machines nado.Vvodnoy machine in an old house C63.Tak same in the new house will heaters, water heater, etc. Please tell me how to connect ...

The old electricity leave? There will be both in the old and new electrical work (strong)? If so, the machine should be put lower rating. How much less? It depends on the load distribution in the old / new building, but not less than a notch for sure. More precisely on the description to say it will not work. Count themselves the burden of a new home and think for a machine you need there.

I would like to clarify with the installation of "induction machine" - in my case it comes to mounting inside apartment el.schitka: I in Stalin's home on the landing on the 3 apartments in panel three are set up, one of which de-energizes my apartment. According to your instructions in the panel must attend an introductory machine connected to the network upstream of the meter, but I have a "completely disables network" device is already installed in the panel on the landing, and at the same time, a special place for oplombirovku input machine in supposed to install the housing panel for indoor installation is not provided. Do I need, in this case based on the regulatory requirements in addition to those on the staircase Apartement machine another set before counter sealable "introductory machine" in the flat panel, or can be delivered for their own convenience bipolar automatic post counter to the composite disable all group automata ?

Shield for electric machines

An electrical shield beneath the counter and machines - the design and selection features

Electrical cabinet protects electrical equipment from external influences (especially outdoors) from dust, humidity, wind.

In it light and compact, you can place the wiring elements, the counter and fuses.

It is also important that the flap performs an aesthetic function - it can be designed as a trim box with an opening lid, or the glass door, "drowned" in the wall. The equipment does not spoil the view and reach of children.

To save on the services of electricians, you can assemble and install electrical panel under the counter and vending machines with their own hands. How to do this will be explained in detail in the article.

Electric box machines: selection

There are many features, among which are selected appropriate to the switch cabinet itself and a box for electrical machines. For houses and apartments - it's usually a small compact box for the meter (the size will depend on what items you plan to put it).

it may be a method of installation:

  • Suspended or wall;
  • Floor (often used for large objects).
  1. Built-in (hidden).
  2. Exterior (contact open).

External easier to fix, hang it on the screws.

Most often such a cabinet is used for open wiring. But you can bring the hidden, from the rear side panel.

The advantage of built-in patterns that they look aesthetically pleasing, do not stick out, hide the contents. The difficulty is that you have to prepare a niche in the wall and proshtrobit channels for cable routing.

By the number of machines that can accommodate in it (2 pieces, but may be 12, 36, 54 or more units). Most counters today connect several machines. This is, firstly, comfortable (for example, if the separately powered light, it will be possible to work with it, without de-energizing power outlet).

Secondly, the majority of today's energy-intensive technology requires a separate machine for operating procedures. Third, it gives an opportunity to save. For example, in the low-power equipment can output the smaller section wires (which is much cheaper), rather than using a thick cable throughout the house.

Protective box for counter

Habitual metal boxes for the meter are often bulky and inferior light polyester which exhibit a high fire protection and are often made with a transparent door.

IP protection class indicates the degree of isolation of devices from moisture and dust. The higher the number after the letters IP - the higher protection class. For example:

  1. IP20 is suitable for installation in the apartment - large dust particles will not penetrate, but no moisture protection.
  2. IP 21 - 23 can be placed in an unheated enclosed space, under a canopy.
  3. IP44 is already possible to place on the street, but with additional protection, visor.
  4. Most protected IP54 electrical cabinets and 66 - they can be installed outdoors, not afraid of rain and wind

For street and cabinets to be installed at entrances, it can be useful if there is a window for readings. In such a shield does not have to open the door every time.

Structure panel and flap members

Box for electric power meter includes:

  • housing;
  • the door;
  • din-rail (a fixing plate for machines and counter);
  • mounting holes and poluotversty prepared for wiring.

The plastic housings of the side portions is like a basting of the holes that can be drilled in areas that would be most convenient to the owner. Or it can be to break out the hatches.

Metal plates are ready holes.

If desired, the boxes inside the RAM set or additional power outlet and other elements.

  1. From elektrostolba conducted directly input (connect Input Only electricians can to a public network). The wires are inserted into the shield.
  2. On DIN-rail mounted Electric.
  3. From him on each wire placed machines.
  4. Outgoing wires are passed through the body panel and bred around the house.
  5. Grounding - a prerequisite. This may be trohzhilny cable or a separate wire, which is started up to "zero".
  6. You can install additional machines. They are connected in parallel from the two main entrances batchfile.

Under the terms of the EMP need to install another machine at the entrance of the house, in front of the counter. This allows manipulation, disconnection, replacement counter.

Now, however, because of the many cases of fraud, electricians can conversely require that the meter was connected directly.

Installation and assembly regulations

Embedded boxes for the electric meter is advised to make plasterboard false wall, where it will be convenient to place it, without resorting to concrete shtroblenie (in load-bearing structures is generally not allowed).

The niche is placed Electrotechnical schitok, on the sides of it "grab" with special glue, screws or gypsum.

Route the cables. For this, it is possible Stroebe grooves or wiring fix on the wall with a cable channel.

Next, a counter. Some models in the lower part have a tab which is pulled, the device is put on the DIN rail and the tongue is latched.

Boxing for electricity meter

Connects the counter. The bottom panel has four outputs. The first - the plus input, the second - the output plus sign. The Third - Enter the minus, the fourth - the output minus. To make a connection, the wire edge is trimmed by 27 mm. Exposed wire should not protrude beyond the enclosure, also braid should not go into clamping contact.

On the counter housing must be the terminal with the symbol "earth". To it is brought to zero.

Basic machines can be put on the most powerful hardware and make them 32 Ampere. For additional branches can already be put batchfile weaker (depending on what it will be connected through them). Also, the cable can be made thinner, for example, on the main 2.5kb. mm, and a "weak" branch 0.5 sq. mm.

Box after installation

To connect an additional batchfile taken a small piece of wire (of the same section as the inlet, so that they are equally pressed). The ends are stripped. One end is clamped together with the input to the main machine, and the second input being transferred further. Similarly, the second base. Each new pair batchfile connected in parallel through the previous couple.

In private homes typically beaten to the ground level of the ground water, the pin, which is connected to zero. The house is still in the hands of the owner. But how to make ground in the apartment, if it is not?

Prior to 1998, the presence of the ground is not considered a mandatory component of the circuit.

In new homes scheme is used TN-C-S .

The plate is put entrances five-wire conductor (for a three-phase power supply) to the meter and machines:

  • 1,2,3, red or brown wire - Phase (+).
  • 4, blue - zero (-).
  • 5, green or yellow-green, - land.

Or trohzhilny for single-phase power, but the earth (PE) is still present, and problems connecting evrorazetok will not.

In older homes the scheme was TN-C. Separate land was not, and grounding "zero" was carried out on the wires of the transformer substation. Cable in such houses chetyrohzhilny (for three-phase power supply):

For single-phase - two conductors (phase and PEN).

Since in the neutral conductor is combined two wires - zero and earth (PE and N), it is called PEN- conductor. In homes with this scheme there is no grounding contacts in the receptacle.

grounding scheme in a private house

If you want to stretch their own ground, in the apartment all the sockets replaced by "Euro", draw a separate cable and connect it to the house-PEN-conductor (not advisable to do this on their own, all the questions - to the chief engineer of the Criminal Code).

Proofreading separation inside the protective conductor and zero done even in old Soviet shields, but the "neutral earthing" only if the entire length of the cable is not less than 10 mm (for copper) or 16 mm (for aluminum). And if the house is re-ground. I know it can engineer the Criminal Code.

By the way, the RCD in TN-C systems put prohibited. Ungrounded and without RCD, people in these homes are completely deprived of protection against electric shock. Make ground for heating and especially gas - also absolutely can not!

And in general, not TN-C system is recognized in the country obsolete, put her more and can not play with the overhaul of the building.

Due to lack of funds, electricity company make redundant grounding on entering the house, and then divide by zero PEN conductor and earth. One way or another, but the circuit TN-C will disappear from our high-rise buildings.

So, choose the size of the control cabinet for its Electric, the number batchfile who will be installing. Remember that an electrician will have two stages: when connected to a common circuit for oplombirovki and counter programming. They can check everything and make the necessary papers.

Shield the electric meter and automatic - how to choose and assemble properly

Circuit breakers and electric meter - it is necessary attributes of a modern electric grid. Place them in special switchboards, which are themselves already permanently installed in the entrances of apartment buildings. And what a private trader in his own home? The problem today is not worth it at all, because the market every man for himself to find a suitable panel for the meter and machine sizes and designs. Incidentally, the last test today plays an important role, because the plate is most often installed inside the house. So he must necessarily fit into the interior of the room, which will be mounted.

Start with a choice should be the type that is defined by two models:

Usually embedded plates used for a system with closed wiring. It occupies little space, it does not interfere. If the installation is carried out on the wall, some of it will stick only cover. The only inconvenience - it is a necessity before installation to make a niche in which to be inserted box. Attach such electrical boxes can be on gypsum or cement mortar, or by screws.

Overhead model installed on any surface and are fixed with screws only. Most often they are used in an open electrical wiring harness. Although it is a universal control box, where you can attach to the back panel of the wire flush.

As for the material used to produce electrical boxes under the machines and the counter, the manufacturers offer two types: metal, plastic. To say that some better and some not, in this case, it is impossible. Even plastic shields strong enough to withstand high mechanical loads, because they are made of thermoplastic. I would like to add that both versions have a beautiful appearance, to the same choice on the market today design is so huge that every customer can find what he needs.

The design of the switch box

Boxes for automatic switches and power control counters are fairly simple design in the form of a box. It includes:

  • Housing.
  • DIN-line, on which are planted breakers and counter.
  • The openings in the rear or side panel for electric wires.
  • Mounting holes.
  • On top of the transparent cover-door.

Attention! shield design may be different, it will all depend on what additional equipment requires the installation of the electrical network at home. For example, the installation of the relay voltage setting or RCD. Hence, the different sizes of boxing.

How to assemble and install electrical shield

Let's start with the fact that in any hardware store in the department of electrical goods can be purchased ready-made electrical shield, which has vending machines and electric control unit. Of course, it is convenient, but there are in this case one problem - the machines and the counter may not be suitable for the electrical power consumption of your home network. Therefore council - to assemble their own shield. How to do it?

First we need to check with the utility company in your area, what brand of electric power they take into operation. Why? The last - a few models that differ from each other class of accuracy and power. It is these two measures, and should be coordinated. By the way, if the store has a ready panel with counter, then you are lucky. If not, then we need to select it under control the size of the device.

What else is needed for assembly?

  • Copper wire of one meter in length and 2.5 mm².
  • Automated switches (the number is determined by the number of input conductors, and output is calculated according to the power consumers in each circuit).
  • Fasteners (screws and plastic dowels). Some manufacturers installation products comes complete with a shield.

First we need to pre-allocate all the elements of the electrical panel so that they do not interfere with each other, and not to cover the mounting holes. Now all this is fixed, then you can proceed to the installation of wires.

Attention! Keep in mind that the installation of wires only vertically or horizontally. No land diagonally.

Let's not paint, what connection method is used in the distribution board. Here is one of the options in the diagram below, where everything is clearly shown, so that it is impossible to make a mistake.

The only point that you need to pay attention to is the numbering or designation of the meter terminal, which will connect the input and output wires. It is important not to confuse what the terminal phase, and which is zero. Therefore it is necessary to open a counter instruction and to understand this question, because each model their positions.

Thus, the devices are installed and connected by wires to each other. It remains only to instal. For this apply the junction box to the surface onto which will be mounted, and a pencil or any other sharp tool (a screwdriver for example) make the mark under the mounting fasteners. Now in these drill holes 6 mm in diameter and 6 mm deep, where pounding dowels. But after they spend the shield attachment.

If you compile and install a junction box is no problem, then you connect it with their own hands are not eligible. So you have to call the representatives of the power supply company, which will hold a connection, that is, connect the control counter with a lead-in cable. If the representatives of the power companies do not know how it is, you have to look for an organization that has a license and access to conduct this type of work.

Note that after connecting the controller shall hold a sealing meter.

And one moment. to could be carried out repair control device and its dismantling without any problems, you need to install the network (in front of) another machine, called a general. Most often it is large and to be installed in a junction box is not designed. What to do in this case? The only way out - to buy a box under the machine and set it next to the guard.

Many people consider themselves to be experienced in the field of electrical networks specialists, so allow a lot of mistakes that can have serious consequences, both for the property and for the man himself. Therefore, recall that perform any repairs or check voltage when emboss machines in the panel, can disengage the general circuit breaker. Better, in general, will not be put under any problems, call an electrician.

Electric board with his own hands - step by step instructions and recommendations

  • Counter "Energomera" - for example, the principle of operation of the brand CE6803B

  • Street box for metering of electricity - the classification and selection criteria

    Shield the electric meter and automatic

    Electric plate for electric power distribution and protection of electrical wiring from overloads and short circuits. If earlier to control home electrical meter was enough with a couple of machines, but now everything has changed. Most recently, 800 watts of power was enough for the whole apartment. But now, electricity consumption reached 7 kW and higher. The photo below shows the old (a) and modern (b) protect the wiring system.

    Old and new electrical wiring protection systems

    With an increase in power consumption for today's network needs reliable device protection. Properly connect the switch box can be turned to the experts for help, or to collect it with his own hands. In both cases it is necessary to understand its structure, the wiring diagram with the requirements and regulations of the installation, as well as possess the skills electrician.

    The house is made of wood wiring should be done with great care and in compliance with the fire safety rules.

    When selected and mounted electrical shield, the following requirements apply to it:

    1. The box should provide accommodation in it the necessary amount of equipment, and even with a small margin. The size defined by the number dialed elements. Unipolar machine is 1 module. The remaining apparatuses are sized multiples of its size. Bipole placed on two modules, a counter size can be greater than eight. If you calculate the required number of devices, you can select the box. Models sold by size or number of modules that can fit within, for example, the device 12 or 36 modules.
    2. Electrical shield is made from an incombustible material with electrical sign, of the rated voltage. The material is metal or coated with electrically non-conductive thermoplastic. The devices can withstand high mechanical loads and design can always find what you need.
    3. External and internal wiring in the panel marked with the labels, which should be specified group of items.
    4. Zero and ground wires connected to pads - one for each terminal. Blue marked tires and black for zero phase.
    5. Selection of machines made under the section of the cable. If set copper conductor of 2.5 mm 2 maximum allowable current for it is 25 A. RCD or machine settings are selected from a standard range downward, that is 16 A. Between a connecting busbar device is desirable.
    6. The metal box must be grounded through the door and the housing.
    7. Each box is sold with a passport, which shows the type and class of a switch, the level of protection, precautions, installation method, etc. Data.
    8. External wiring in the box is introduced into the metal tubes or sleeves. By setting the inner electrical shield thereto hollowed out Stroebe cable sheaves (fig. Below).

    Installation of a switch hidden wiring

    Type depends on how the constructed box. The apparatus may be as follows:

    • embedded - for concealed wiring (see Figure below).
    • overhead - in rooms with exposed wiring;
    • floor - preferably for industry.

    The box of the first type is inserted into the requisite infrastructure niche and looks attractive. On the wall is visible only to cover and there are no protruding parts.

    Built-in electric panel

    Disadvantage is the need to manufacture niche, if it is not provided for in the home design. Advantageously falshstenu manufacture of plasterboard. The box is mounted through a rear wall with glue tacking the edges or gypsum.

    To hollow niches in the bearing walls under electric box is forbidden!

    The consignment note model is universal. To her open and concealed wiring can be provided.

    Conduit under the apparatus is designed as a box with a door (Fig. Below). Inside it are DIN-line to set a counter, machines and other equipment.

    Surface mounted electrical panel

    Metal box comprises openings for the wires above and below. The plastic housing is made to break out hatches. Input wires in a box protected by couplings and seals.

    Wiring required to mount the pads and the circuit with their own hands, and they necessarily require electricians checking papers. They can be drawn by hand or created with the help of special programs. It is important that the scheme has been made correctly and provide a convenient home electrical operation.

    First type of network to be connected is determined. In apartments it is a single-phase, and in private homes may be the same or three-phase.

    grounding system type can be TNC, TN-S or TNC-S. The first of them, combining and ground zero, was created under the old regulations, and does not apply to new homes.

    Schematic model of the electrical circuit shown in Fig. below. It shows only a legend.

    The electrical circuit board

    On entering the single-phase single pole circuit breaker fitted with a counter. Behind them is a common fire RCD. In the next step, all consumers are divided into groups. Where necessary, set the differential machines. If they are not needed, it will be enough circuit breakers. The optimum is the following distribution of the rooms:

    • outlet group;
    • lighting switches;
    • individual machines on the bathroom and powerful electrical appliances: washing machine, water heater, air conditioning, electric.

    Technical characteristics of the machines selected by each group.

    The simplest scheme of a switch branching line 3 shown in Fig. below.

    Driving with the electrical wiring on the three electric lines

    Power is supplied to the counter (phase - red, zero - green), and then goes to the automatic loading and 1-3. Yellow denotes a ground wire. It protects not only appliances, but also shield.

    When connecting the meter it is important not to confuse the phase and neutral terminals. All necessary explanations are instructions for it.

    In the store you can buy a box immediately with standard equipment, but it is often necessary to select items on their own, according to the developed scheme. Types and Functions include:

    1. DIN-rails for placement apparatus are made of metal plates, which are mounted on the switch box.
    2. Automatic Input - automatic switch for supplying electricity object in a case of a circuit overload or short-circuit (short-circuit).
    3. Instruments of the calculation of energy consumption, installed in a separate box or with the rest of the equipment. Counter type may be an induction or electronic. Wiring diagrams of both are the same.
    4. Circuit breakers that protect the wiring (chosen by size and character of loads). They are selected with a focus on the most current, valid for a certain section of the wire when switched load. The devices themselves can be protected from destruction integrated fuses. The machine can operate immediately when a fault occurs in 15-60 min or if the load current exceeds the rated marginally.
    5. Distribution bars to zero and the ground (can be open and closed version).
    6. RCD - human protection device against electric shock. Furthermore, they do not permit fire when a leakage current in the wire. May be used instead of differential machine, perform additional functions of the circuit breaker. In this case, instead of two devices in one panel set. This saves space. instrument denomination selected the same or a step higher than him standing in front of the machine.
    7. Sometimes guards set voltage relay. This is not required, but the presence in the house it is useful to expensive electronics. When the voltage deviation from the set value circuit is broken. Moreover, the device shows how the voltage changes with time in the circuit.
    8. Wiring - a means to create connections.

    Wiring in the apartment is divided into groups and each of them are calculated load, and then calculates the required line cross-sections, and selected the appropriate machine. The layout is roughly as follows:

    • Group lighting and sockets in the hallway and bathroom (6 A, Emergency circuit breakers);
    • Group coverage bedrooms and halls (6 A circuit breaker);
    • lighting sockets in the kitchen (16 A, Emergency circuit breakers);
    • outlet group in the room and a bedroom (16 A, Emergency circuit breakers);
    • a separate connection to the electric stove, washing machine, air conditioning (a circuit breaker is used, depending on the capacity of consumers).

    For the outlet group in the security system and home router set automatic 6 A (you can add an uninterruptible power supply).

    As a result, the total capacity, while the inclusion of all loads will be approximately 7 kW. For the internal network should be established here a bipolar lead-in machine at 32 A.

    Installation and wiring is carried out with the following color-coded:

    • L - phase wire of white, red, or brown color;
    • N - zero blue wire;
    • PE - ground yellow-green color.
    1. color code must be observed live.
    2. Connections and installing apparatuses are arranged so that inside the shields were arranged clearly understandable without a circuit (Fig. Below). The more they order, the easier it is to maintain.
    3. Power connections are made from the top down (more powerful devices are installed above). With this arrangement, the switch box can be quickly de-energize in the accident.
    4. Power is fed to the input of the last turn, when the final check is made of all operating cycles. Individual lines are tested for performance using time switching circuits.

    Correctly assembled electrical panel

    Under the shield of the space available is selected. Usually it is installed in the hallway near the input power cable. installation height is 1.5-1.7 m. In a special shield box with a viewing window counter is placed. In the wall of the hole being made to secure the box at the dowels or screws.

    When the shield is installed on the wall, it can be collected as follows:

    1. All groups of wires apartments in advance are supplied to the shield, which is the installation. They should be marked to make it easier to assemble the circuit.
    2. Screws on the shield mounted DIN-rails for mounting devices.
    3. At the top of the tire is set to neutral, and at the bottom - for grounding.
    4. Top mounted automatic input.
    5. In a separate box, as for the counter, can be placed introductory machine.
    6. Groups machines arranged downward with decreasing power. As the webs therebetween special tire is used or they are made of copper wires of 4 mm. Preferred when the location of devices in the panel and on the same electrical circuit.
    7. Cables and wires are introduced through the holes in the box. Since they cut off the outer sheath and the color is made to seal the connection area. There should always be a reserve for future repairs. Zero conductor is connected to the upper bus. To the upper terminals machine is energized and a load connected to the bottom (phase connection to elektrogruppy). wire cross section decreases, starting from the input and to the sites with loads. grounding wire cross-section should not be less than that of the phase input. We can not allow the formation of twist and turns. Power and neutral wires are bred on opposite sides of the shield.
    8. If no new connection counter power to power tools, and illumination can be supplied with the old. Wires are output from the counter close to controller further able to make a connection, and seal apparatus.
    9. After addition of each group is expedient to check its operability, by applying voltage through the temporary connection scheme.

    You should first collect the shield without switching, noting the installation location of devices (trial assembly in Fig. Below). It should be possible to quickly turn off the power on the inside and outside.

    Trial assembly panel without switching

    When the flap is closed, it should be capable of rapid voltage detecting means with a screwdriver or the indicator lamp.

    Floor panel (SCHE) located on the floor under the several flats. Usually, it is locked in the lock and open it only with the help of an electrician on duty housing office. Residents access to the electrical panel is prohibited. They can only be switched on after the automatic operation by opening a special cover.

    Fig. lower storey is shown schematically a shield wiring on the three flats.

    Driving electrical shield on floor

    All SCHE entrance powered from common riser (phase bus L1 L2 L3 and N in Fig. higher). In the old housing stock is used earthing system such as TN-C. Each phase is connected to a separate apartment, and the bus is neutral wire is common. Power is supplied to the meter after the RCD, and then goes on branching lines in the flat (lighting sockets and electric). There must be another packet switch upstream of the meter, but in the scheme is not specified.

    SCHE upgrades can be done if to get permission from the housing office, and then buy the necessary machines, corresponding to the required power and the protective functions. After that, the electrician will make the following changes:

    1. Is replaced by a supply aluminum cables on copper appropriate section. The compound is a special terminal for dissimilar conductors.
    2. Instead of the old circuit breakers connected to the new desired characteristics.
    3. Replacement of the old ground and neutral conductors on the modern.

    Radical method in replacement of electrical SCHE be made if to install a separate box in an apartment with the transfer counter in it. In interstorey board should establish a packet switch or circuit breaker with fuse-links. This requires a resolution of the housing office.

    Due to the fact that there are always new devices in the panel you need to leave room for them. Among them are, for example, are as follows:

    • power consumption limiter;
    • consumed power metering device (not count);
    • phase balancing control device.

    About the features of a switch board installation can be found by viewing this video.

    There is nothing complicated to choose and assemble electric shields for machines, meters and other equipment. It is important to choose the right, calculate the parameters and set them in the electrical wires connecting it. The scheme should be intuitive and easy for maintenance.

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