- 1 How to make the house
- 2 How to make the wiring in a private home for yourself?
- 3 How to hold the wiring in the house?
- 4 The circuit wiring in a private home
How to make the house
How to make the wiring in a private home for yourself?
In the case where the wiring installed in your home will be an expert, this information will not be useless to you.
Such knowledge you will need to monitor the correct and accurately whether the installation is done, as well as help you understand what is needed to carry out such works: materials, tools and equipment.
In addition, when staying in the house, occur situations which require repair or replacement of individual units the wiring in the house, but that is not always possible to call an electrician. This is where you need this information. Knowing how to perform wiring, you definitely will develop, the way in which it is laid, what material, what section of the wires, they rely on what kind of load.
How to carry out preparatory work for the wiring devices?
To begin the installation, you must start with the preparatory work: to make electrical wiring diagrams, mark up, prepare to carry out the punching operation.
Firstly, it is required to determine the site of injection of the power cable into the house and place the installation distribution panel. Often it is being installed near the entry to the house, at a height of 1500-1700 mm in a warm room.
Then it can be an electrical wiring diagram and wiring, on the basis of which it will be possible to perform marking the places where are installed sockets, switches, electrical appliances, wall fixtures, junction boxes, etc.
Upon completion of the electrical arrangement of marking can be carried markings lines, which then pass to the wiring itself.
So, in a private house required two compilation schemes: the electrical and wiring.
- The first scheme is designed to determine the required amount of energy consumers, electrical devices, and the method of their connection.
- The second scheme is required to determine the mount places of the devices, the distance between them and the required number of wires and an additional material.
Such schemes can form indiscriminately, without following any requirements sufficient for the concept itself.
In this case, it is useful to stick to the following tips:
1.For sockets into which appliances to be switched with a large capacity, for example, a washing machine, an electric heater, an electric oven and the like are required to work the ground potential and the connection of the electrical installation of the wires ( "phase", "zero" , "Earth").
- When connecting sockets and lighting required separation of electrical wiring. In addition, lighting fixtures and sockets are preferably split into groups for the following reasons:
- copper wire of 2.5 mm2 is used to connect groups of outlets, the total power can not exceed 4.6 kW;
- wire with a cross section of 1.5 mm2 for lighting - power one such group can not exceed 3, 3 kW;
- devices with high power must be connected to a separate power outlet, which is not connected with any group;
- it is not necessary to plan the installation and connect the "loop" outlet, especially a socket with an earth connection.
All lines connecting the wiring of lighting groups, individual and group outlets should bring to the distribution box with automatic rifles. For each group or individual outlet would be to provide for a separate machine.
How do I know the total capacity of the instrument?
To find out current, necessary to divide the total power consumers that are connected to this wire, in watts, 220 (single phase). That is, at the maximum power of 5 kW group, current is 5000: 220 = 22.7 A.
Determine the appropriate section of the wire may be by dividing the maximum load current at a certain portion of the wiring on the current density for this type of conductor, but it is possible to select a special table. Those. at a force equal to 22.7 A current density and the conductor 9 A / mm2 2.5 mm2 suitable.
Counting of energy consumers around the house a total capacity must take into account the fact that usually all at the same time is not included. In this case, a correction factor demand. In the case where the total power of less than or equal to 14, it is equal to 0.8 kW to 20 kW - 0.65 50 - 0.5.
How to spend the markup correctly?
Markings on the work for the installation of electrical wiring start with marking the main path wires from electric panel, as well as all of their turns, branches and passes through walls. When marking comply with the following rules:
Marking wiring indented
- wires on the wall must be mounted either parallel or perpendicular to the floor;
- marking the path of the horizontal portions to be 0.2 m below a ceiling, which reduces the likelihood of damage to the wiring;
- when wiring bends, vertical or horizontal, the angle must be respected 0 °;
- the installation runs on intercommunication and attic floors the way to the lighting devices is marked by the shortest connection box.
To mark the track, you can enlist the help of a special marker cord, it can be bought, but you can make yourself, by coloring conventional cord paint, charcoal or chalk.
installing junction boxes mark out in places branching wiring, descent to sockets or switches.
If you plan to mount the hidden wiring, in this case, mark a point for the installation of boxes in which to store the hidden switches and sockets execution.
Switches are generally placed at the entrance to the room by the finding of a door handle, can be inside and outside and it is possible.
Switches are mounted at a height of 1.5 m or 0,5-0,8 m from pola- this standard. The most popular option number two. Marking out the path of the wires to the switch, it should be remembered that the distance to the door frame can not be less than 0.1m.
- Currently, the installation height of sockets is not regulated. The main argument here will ease.
- When you plan to install in the room desk, the installation of sockets should be implemented so that it is above the table top.
- The kitchen outlet positioned above kitchen countertop at a height of 0.9 m. Often it makes sense to install double or triple outlet.
Calculation of outlets in the living room is generally carried out as follows, for every 400 cm perimeter, at least one socket designed for current 10 (16) A.
The kitchen, usually required about four installation sockets, which are designed for current 10 (16) A.
The wall between the adjoining rooms available installation layout internal (hidden) switches or sockets, which will be located on the same axis on opposite sides of the wall.
For washing machines, cookers, air conditioners, electric water heater, shower and electric boiler is necessary to provide individual outlet, a separate wiring from the electrical panel.
They have 4 electrical safety zone:
By 0th zone include placement zone taps or mixers;
By the first zone includes the area where established themselves bathtub, shower, sink, sauna;
The second zone defines the area within a radius of 60 cm around the own bathroom, shower, sink, sink, even if they are stationary partitions;
a third zone called space in a radius of 240 cm from the second zone.
Install switches and sockets can only be in the third zone, they must be protected by an RCD current up to 30 mA.
Lamp on the ceiling is usually mounted on the center of the room.
To determine the location of the lamp in the room the floor mark up two diagonal position of their intersection is the center. With a plumb transfer the center point on the ceiling and then mark up the path to her mount wiring from the junction box.
If you choose to install on the ceiling of the room a few lamps, we first define the center line at the center in the length of the room, and then on this line marks the point placement fixtures, which are then transferred to the ceiling.
Prior to installation of the wiring, it is necessary to carry out cutting the wire to pieces, their length is equal to the space between the coupling and mounting boxes, lamps and other devices. The wire cut into pieces necessary with a small margin of 0.1-0.15 m, which is required in order to connect them to each other and connect to the appliance.
In the case where the distance between the mounting points more than the existing pieces of wire, there is a need to install an intermediate connection box, which is not very good. The best option - whole pieces of wire.
How to carry out the mounting and flush wiring in a private home?
Upon completion of the preparatory work proceed to the installation of wiring, using previously prepared circuit diagram.
Wiring method may be open or hidden. It specifies the material from which built the wall, and some other factors.
Wiring open method is performed, as a rule, in wooden houses, or when the room is carried out the finishing work. In this case, electric wiring is mounted on asbestos lining, also in gofrorukave or cable ducts (elektrokorobah) or plastic moldings.
Currently in open installation method uses gofrorukav or elektrokorob.
Since gofrorukava views on the aesthetic is not intended, it is used when installing wiring auxiliary and utility rooms, and rooms for residential use elektrokoroba (cable channels) or cavity plastic baseboards.
Gofrorukav fasten to the wall or ceiling can with plastic holders that are fastened with screws, screws or dowels - it depends on the material of the ceiling or wall.
The points of divergence wiring, install a special connection boxes.
Mounting sockets and switches, in the open process is made to "Escutcheon 'of insulating material can serve Kojima dry wood, plexiglass, plastic or PCB.
Escutcheon cut into a circle shape with a diameter of 6-7 cm and a thickness of about 10 cm. First Escutcheon attached to the wall by screws countersunk cap or adhesive, and then attached to it an outlet or switch do not have a plastic outer casing.
Thereafter outlet is connected to the "phase" and "zero", and in secure sockets and "ground".
The switch is connected to the gap "phases", which means that from the terminal box only "phase" lead to it, which passes through the switch, again returns to the connection box on the other wire, and it is connected to the "phase", which goes to the lamp, and "zero" is fed directly to the lamp, bypassing the switch.
Define "phase" can be designated wiring tag or remember wire colors. When the wiring is installed and connected, define the "phase" will display.
Performing concealed electric installation is made in monolithic homes, houses of brick, as well as artificial and natural stones, etc.
Concealed wiring in the frame houses
In the houses of stone or brick installation of hidden wiring is carried out in special channels, the so-called Stroebe, cut them along the path of a future posting, sealed with plaster at the end of the installation.
It should be borne in mind that in the future site of the installation location or junction boxes for sockets, switches or regulators make openings depth of about 6-7 cm (depending on the size of the boxes). Install and fix the box in such recesses can use the cement or plaster solution.
Installation of hidden wiring differs a great complexity. And when there is a need to revise the wires have to spoil the wall. but it does not spoil the view of the house, ie, aesthetic. As a rule, if the installation Implemented correctly, problems in the operation of such did not occur.
When buying those or other boxes should give prereimuschestvo quality devices, which have a certificate of quality.
Input wiring carried in boxes via bushings of insulating material or pieces of PVC tubing. It is extremely necessary for the metal mounting and junction boxes, for the reason that the edge in such boxes are often sharp, and may cause damage to the insulation of electrical cables during installation.
The junction boxes need to connect the wires by welding (brazing) a crimping sleeves or clamps.
Switches and sockets mounted after mounting boxes or mounting Enclosures (for open wiring) and summing them proper wiring. Depending on which method of installation was selected, switches and sockets can be overt and covert execution.
Installation flush-outlet and circuit breakers is carried out in the installation box. The first thing out of the socket or switch remove the top plastic cover. The terminals of the inside of the wiring is connected, just as in the open. Then, the inside of the switch or outlet box is attached to the spacer by means of clamps, ie twist to lock the fixing screws.
Upon completion of the screwed plastic protective cover.
How to hold the wiring in the house?
The process consists of several stages:
choice of method of laying (open and hidden);
selection of the constituent elements;
permission for connection to the local power grid
On the example of a new home, consider how to independently carry out the wiring.
The first thing you need to start - to decide with the process line installation. To date, the wiring used overt and covert type. Open electric represents mount all the constituent elements over the finished walls (tracks laid in special cable channels).
The advantage is as follows:
the damaged area can be repaired (no need to cut the wallpaper, plastered walls and destroy, etc...) without problems;
simpler installation and preparatory work (no need to Stroebe walls of the wiring in the house);
convenient to add new points of branching.
Disadvantages of this method of installation:
very often it does not fit into the interior rooms (cable ducts are not too attractive);
outdoor wiring is more susceptible to mechanical damage, and typically has a shorter life.
Hidden wiring in the home is more popular. This option involves the installation of wires in special grooves in the walls and ceiling (Stroebe), as well as in the false ceiling, under the head, in a special plinth.
It does not spoil the interior rooms of its kind;
It is fireproof (except wooden house);
cheaper (compared to the open method of wiring pads);
the chance of damage is much less;
high durability of all components.
repair and maintenance of the difficulty (to replace the electrical wiring in the house, or connect a new point, you must damage the finishing material);
in case of failure it is very difficult to find the exact location of the damage, if you do not use special devices, for example, a self-made metal detector;
more complex electrical work.
We recommend that you still stopped opt for the latter method, that is. To. He is more durable, and the whole line is not evident! When choosing a high-quality components and correct installation of electrical wiring in the house, the probability of failure is very low.
In order to draw the wiring diagram, you must first provide the location of the following items in a private home:
place entry route into the room;
powerful home appliances (e.g., a washing machine, an electric kettle, cooker), t to need a separate power line for it..;
sockets, switches, junction box.
We should note the following requirements and recommendations in the schematic electrical wiring in the house:
The wires should extend only vertically and horizontally across the walls and ceiling. Rotation should be carried out at a right angle. It is also possible to carry out the wiring on the floor by using a special electrical baseboard.
Place gasket posting on the wall should be at a distance of 20 cm from the ceiling, while to the installation of sockets and switches lines fall straight down.
From door and window openings network should take place at a distance of 10 cm.
Switches must be done at a distance of 80 cm (or 150 cm) from the floor, from the door handle.
Mounting socket carried out at a distance of 30 cm from the floor, the outlet of the kitchen countertop to be installed at a height of 10 cm.
is not recommended to be placed in rooms with high humidity switches and sockets (only at a safe distance according to GOST), it is best to bring all the necessary elements outside the room.
On the basis of the recommendations go on to create their own project wiring harness.
Can as an example use one of the following wiring circuits in a building:
It is best to use for this purpose a copy of the plan of your home, t. To. In this document met the exact dimensions of the rooms and windows placement, doors, walls.
After the circuit design will be made to move the markers works.
Marking work are drawing on the walls with chalk or charcoal route passing the cable, as well as places of installation of its elements. To quickly and smoothly make the route the wiring, it is recommended to use a rope, pre painted in chalk (or charcoal). This rope is properly called a cord, see how they can use in the photo below:
All you need to create one of the sites is to fix one end of the rope in the original position and gently stretch it to the end point (to colored rope touched the wall). After that you need to pull the rope and let go sharply to trace left on the wall. Bol find out more about how to make the layout of the walls under the wiring, you can out of our separate article.
After marking the completion, it is recommended to photograph the wall in a private home. This will allow you to quickly locate the wiring at its replacement or repair.
At this stage, you need to pick up all the planned electrical products for wiring. We draw your attention to the fact that the choice of the materials do not need to save money, t. To. The poor quality Chinese products are very often the cause of accidents (up to short-circuit), and is also subject to breakage.
Copper wire cable channel
We recommend that you stop the selection on the following elements (see photo above):
junction boxes and channels of non-flammable or self-extinguishing materials;
sockets and switches are open (they are easier to mount, while the cost of goods is lower than that of the hidden);
copper cable (its service life is much longer than that of aluminum products). Besides copper wires capable of withstanding higher loads. We recommend to give preference to brands such as PVA, VVGng or NYM;
transverse cross section at the rosette group of not less than 2.5 mm. sq. (Maintains the current to 25 A, which is sufficient for the home environment, although it is best to carry out the calculation of the cable section for the individual application conditions). For the installation of lighting, you can choose a cable with a core cross section 1.5 mm.kv., but will have to buy a thicker wire to connect a powerful household appliances - 4 mm.kv.
Besides the fact that you need to calculate the exact number of sockets, switches, mounting boxes still need to take care of the length of the wire in the wiring installation of the entire house.
Be sure to purchase a length with a margin, otherwise trouble may occur during operation, when up to the end point will not be enough just 10-15 cm.
We advise you to calculate the length according to the following rules:
installation boxes for adding to the length of 5 cm depth + End;
Mounting fixtures for adding to the length of 10 cm (if using a filament lamp) and 15 cm (if using a fluorescent lamp);
the length of each segment add 10-15 cm for connection of wires together.
To learn how to calculate the number of cable wiring we described in a separate article. Option for the lazy - floor area multiplied by 2, and it will need a cable length for normal household wiring.
Thus, the scheme is, the constituent elements purchased, walls are prepared. Now you can safely proceed to the installation of electrical wiring in the house with his own hands.
For work, we need the following tools:
Little bolgarka with diamond disk
Puncher with a crown of brick or concrete
Whatever information is better perceived, we give the whole process a wiring harness on a private house in the form of step by step instructions.
With grinder cut in the counter walls marked special groove for assembling new wiring in the home. Sizes of grooves are as follows: the depth of 2 cm, 2 cm width). The locations for installing junction boxes, sockets and switches Grooves walls with perforator with a nozzle (depth and diameter Stroebe select in accordance with the size of products).
See how to do Stroebe on wiring in the house, you can in the video below:
Work hammer and grinder
Step 2 - Mounting junction boxes
In round Stroebe mounted boxes and flush. For their installation it is recommended to use screws with dowels or asbestos layer (about 2 mm). After reliable fixation boxes, move on.
Attaching the mounting box
Escutcheon clearly see the installation process, you can at the following video example:
The groove under progruntovyvaetsya wire, then it is necessary to lay the cable inside the pre-cut it into pieces. For fixing the wiring it is recommended to use plaster. It can immediately grab the track and align the wall. Step tacking -. 40 cm on the other methods of cable attaching to the wall we are told in the relevant article, which strongly recommend that you read!
track laying and fixing of alabaster
Step 4 - Connecting sockets and switches
Once the plaster hardens completely (about a day), it is necessary to carefully wipe using a float. After that, you can proceed to the installation of sockets and switches.
Installation socket with his hands
That's all the instruction on electrical wiring in a private home from scratch. We recommend you also view the vivid video tutorial in which the event is described in more extensively on the example of a brick house:
Obtaining permission to connect to the local power grid
When all the electrical appliances, machines, and the RCD will be installed, you must agree with the pre-wired "Gosenergonadzor", which should give a positive answer to the Owner power.
You must first pass acceptance tests (technical inspection of the facility where the wiring has been carried out). If the result is positive, you will be given a "Certificate of admission to connect" on the basis of which the owner of the power supply must connect your residential facility.
So we looked at how the wiring should be done in the house with his own hands. Hopefully provided instruction was clear and useful!
The circuit wiring in a private home
Before starting the electrical work is first drawn diagram Wiring. Having a clear idea and the concept of power on hand, the wiring becomes much easier.
Why need the wiring diagram?
Well, first of all, the scheme is necessary for drawing up a list of necessary supplies. That is, having at hand the scheme, calculated wire length, wire size in some areas, the required number of outlets and switches, junction boxes and place them marking etc.
Also, a wiring diagram of wiring needed to determine the location and arrangement of the elements of power wiring such as a switchboard, the circuit breakers, meters (meters), the input power supply wires and cables.
Example of the circuit wiring in a private home.
Dining in a private home, usually comes on an overhead line 0.4 kV. With an overhead line support on the opening comes the electrical phase conductor L and a neutral protective combined working and PEN (single phase supply).
Figure 1. Input power of the air line.
Recently, the energy supplying organizations practice to install metering devices on the street, in the opening switchboard (before counters installed inside the house). Therefore, in the opening switchboard installed electric meter and the opening circuit breaker (you can also install an introductory RCD selective action).
With the shield opening the feed wire or cable is routed to an internal switchboard located directly inside the home.
With this internal electrical panel and power supply begins at home. To power supply was more reliable, customers are divided into groups. Consider the example of a major customer groups:
- 1. Lighting;
- 2. Outlet group;
- 3. Power Unit (boiler, washing machine, boiler, etc.);
- 4. Hoz. needs (annex garage, a cellar, etc.).
In an internal switchboard for each consumer group individual protection devices are installed (machines, ouzo).
Also for drawing circuit wiring in a private home you must have a plan of the house. Knowing drawing house plan can be superficially display wiring diagram.
Figure 3. Layout of placing electrical wiring of a private house.
From the foregoing material prepared in principle wiring diagram in a private house.
4. When electric wiring diagram of the house.
If a large mansion that can be broken down consumer separately for each floor, half the house or each room individually.
If the house is suitable three-phase power?
If the house is not suitable single-phase and three-phase power, in this case, reliance on the opening switchboard comes three phases (L1, L2, L3) and the combined protective earth and work cable PEN.
Driving flat wiring
electrical wiring diagrams in the apartment and the house of significant differences between them are not. The difference between them is that the power supply of apartment starts with the floor panel, since electricity is supplied not by air, and a cable line.
Putting electricity into the apartment starts in the stairwell, where is a junction box with a counter. Here set the main switch, which usually go two independent lines.
Each line is protected by an automatic packet switch or fuse (so-called plug). Thus, when a short circuit occurs in a flat line is not completely de-energized.
Apartment wiring can be overt or covert. For open wiring can be used wire or SHVVP NYM. Concealed wiring is replaced and is divided into non-replaceable. The wires are laid inside a replaceable wiring blamed-plastic pipe and unchangeable - directly underneath the layer of plaster.
Earlier in the Soviet times, accounting and protection devices (meters, vending machines, Tube) The apartment is located only in the stairwell. Now many electricians wiring diagram of the apartment remade so that the apartment also established an internal switchboard. From him already and is the distribution of individual wiring lines through the rooms.
Before drawing up the wiring scheme of the apartment you need to make a plan layout and location of future appliances. That is where the TV, fridge, computer, etc. will be installed
It is necessary to know where and how much to allocate sockets and light switches for the installation and with the time when the repair is complete, the need to use a device such as carrying and tees did not arise.
Consider the usual two-bedroom apartment. Wiring it divided into the following main groups of consumers:
- - lighting (hall, room, kitchen);
- - socket (rooms);
- - bathroom, toilet (lighting);
- - kitchen (outlet);
Wiring diagram of the apartment similar to the scheme of a private house with single-phase supply.
Figure 6: Layout of the electrical wiring in the apartment
Also, it should be noted that for the bathrooms, there are requirements to the location of switches - are not permitted by their presence in these areas. In addition, the bath is forbidden to use sockets.
An exception is the outlet for connecting the electric shaver, but its connection to the network must be performed through the transformer.
1. That's right, in between the tires raspred.schite PE and N must be jumper. You can make the copper wire 10kv.mm.
Only one comment 4th introductory lived should not focus on the working zero (N), and the earth (PE). That is, the ground loop and the opening cable sit on the bus, PE, and since it is a jumper on the N.
Group lines on sockets protect RCD + RCBOs automatic or (preferably) is required. On electric lighting - machines, the RCD can not put.
A shemku possible. and then with the RCD is not clear. Jumper from GZSH on the RCD, and then the bus N .. I understand correctly.
To start. The counter does not knock, and works to turn off the circuit breaker. Come on RCD, where to put what and come up with a miracle device. To study the beginning (available in Internet) operating principle of the RCD, for which it is intended.
Read everything PUE specifically about the grounding conductors and grounding written. read carefully. Good luck.
I will add, will stand stove and el.duhovka
I will add, will stand stove and el.duhovka
which connection options to choose from. And how it is possible to calculate ?? Thank you.
I would even put the story boards, otherwise the whole cellar is in the wires.
Sobral load floors on the main switchboard was estimated capacity - chose automatic introduction and said to the customer on how to take that in RES (or gave him the calculation).
If you are lighting a network pop-20A machine, and then lay it you have to cable no less than 2.5 mm² copper. And this is a waste of money.